DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Ostwald Ripening Stability of Curcumin-Loaded MCT Nanoemulsion: Influence of Various Emulsifiers

  • Kim, Sun-Hyung (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Ji, Yeun-Sun (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Lee, Eui-Seok (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Hong, Soon-Taek (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University)
  • Received : 2016.06.21
  • Accepted : 2016.08.22
  • Published : 2016.09.30

Abstract

Curcumin is a flavonoid found in the rhizome of the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.) and has recently attracted interest because it has numerous biological functions and therapeutic properties. In the present study, we attempted to incorporate curcumin into medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) nanoemulsions (0.15 wt% curcumin, 10 wt% MCT oil, and 10 wt% emulsifiers) with various emulsifiers [polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween-20), sorbitan monooleate (SM), and soy lecithin (SL)]. The physicochemical properties of the nanoemulsions including the Ostwald ripening stability were investigated. The initial droplet size was found to be 89.08 nm for the nanoemulsion with 10 wt% Tween-20 (control), and when Tween-20 was partially replaced with SM and SL, the size decreased: 73.43 nm with 4 wt% SM+6 wt% Tween-20 and 67.68 nm with 4 wt% SL+6 wt% Tween-20 (prepared at 15,000 psi). When the nanoemulsions were stored for 28 days at room temperature, the droplet size increased as the storage time increased. The largest increase was observed for the control nanoemulsion, followed by the 4 wt% SL+6 wt% Tween-20 and 4 wt% SM+6 wt% Tween-20 systems. The Turbiscan dispersion stability results strongly supported the relationship between droplet size and storage time. The time-dependent increase in droplet size was attributed to the Ostwald ripening phenomenon. Thus, the Ostwald ripening stability of curcumin-loaded MCT nanoemulsions with Tween-20 was considerably improved by partially replacing the Tween-20 with SM or SL. In addition, curcumin may have acted as an Ostwald ripening inhibitor.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Leanontech

References

  1. Peret-Almeida L, Cherubino APF, Alves RJ, Dufosse L, Gloria MBA. 2005. Separation and determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Food Res Int 38: 1039-1044. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2005.02.021
  2. Bong PH. 2000. Spectral and photophysical behaviors of curcumin and curcuminoids. Bull Korean Chem Soc 21: 81-86.
  3. Sharma OP. 1976. Antioxidant activity of curcumin and related compounds. Biochem Pharmacol 25: 1811-1812. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(76)90421-4
  4. Ak T, Gulcin I. 2008. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin. Chem Biol Interact 174: 27-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2008.05.003
  5. Ruby AJ, Kuttan G, Babu KD, Rajasekharan KN, Kuttan R. 1995. Anti-tumour and antioxidant activity of natural curcuminoids. Cancer Lett 94: 79-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3835(95)03827-J
  6. Kuttan R, Bhanumathy P, Nirmala K, George MC. 1985. Potential anticancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Cancer Lett 29: 197-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3835(85)90159-4
  7. Huang MT, Lou YR, Ma W, Newmark HL, Reuhl KR, Conney AH. 1994. Inhibitory effects of dietary curcumin on forestomach, duodenal, and colon carcinogenesis in mice. Cancer Res 54: 5841-5847.
  8. Huang HC, Jan TR, Yeh SF. 1992. Inhibitory effect of curcumin, an anti-inflammatory agent, on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Eur J Pharmacol 221: 381-384. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-2999(92)90727-L
  9. Srimal RC, Dhawan BN. 1973. Pharmacology of diferuloyl methane (curcumin), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. J Pharm Pharmacol 25: 447-452. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1973.tb09131.x
  10. Wang X, Jiang Y, Wang YW, Huang MT, Ho CT, Huang Q. 2008. Enhancing anti-inflammation activity of curcumin through O/W nanoemulsion. Food Chem 108: 419-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.086
  11. Duvoix A, Blasius R, Delhalle S, Schnekenburger M, Morceau F, Henry E, Dicato M, Diederich M. 2005. Chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of curcumin. Cancer Lett 223: 181-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2004.09.041
  12. Negi PS, Jayaprakasha GK, Jagan Mohan Rao L, Sakariah KK. 1999. Antibacterial activity of turmeric oil: a byproduct from curcumin manufacture. J Agric Food Chem 47: 4297-4300. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990308d
  13. Ringman JM, Frautschy SA, Cole GM, Masterman DL, Cummings JL. 2005. A potential role of the curry spice curcumin in Alzheimers disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 2: 131-136. https://doi.org/10.2174/1567205053585882
  14. Lim GP, Chu T, Yang F, Beech W, Frautschy SA, Cole GM. 2001. The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse. J Neurosci 21: 8370-8377. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.21-21-08370.2001
  15. Mythri RB, Bharath MMS. 2012. Curcumin: a potential neuroprotective agent in Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des 18: 91-99. https://doi.org/10.2174/138161212798918995
  16. Jagatha B, Mythri RB, Vali S, Bharath MMS. 2008. Curcumin treatment alleviates the effects of glutathione depletion in vitro and in vivo: therapeutic implications for Parkinson's disease explained via in silico studies. Free Radic Biol Med 44: 907-917. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.11.011
  17. Jackson JK, Higo T, Hunter WL, Burt HM. 2006. The antioxidants curcumin and quercetin inhibit inflammatory processes associated with arthritis. Inflamm Res 55: 168-175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-006-0067-z
  18. Zhang DW, Fu M, Gao SH, Liu JL. 2013. Curcumin and diabetes: a systematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013: 636053.
  19. Chiu J, Khan ZA, Farhangkhoee H, Chakrabarti S. 2009. Curcumin prevents diabetes-associated abnormalities in the kidneys by inhibiting p300 and nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$. Nutrition 25: 964-972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2008.12.007
  20. Tonnesen HH, Masson M, Loftsson T. 2002. Studies of curcumin and curcuminoids. XXVII. Cyclodextrin complexation: solubility, chemical and photochemical stability. Int J Pharm 244: 127-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-5173(02)00323-X
  21. Maiti K, Mukherjee K, Gantait A, Saha BP, Mukherjee PK. 2007. Curcumin-phospholipid complex: preparation, therapeutic evaluation and pharmacokinetic study in rats. Int J Pharm 330: 155-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2006.09.025
  22. Wahlstrom B, Blennow G. 1978. A study on the fate of curcumin in the rat. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 43: 86-92.
  23. Chen H, Weiss J, Shahidi F. 2006. Nanotechnology in nutraceuticals and functional foods. Food Technol 60: 30-36.
  24. Weiss J, Takhistov P, McClements DJ. 2006. Functional materials in food nanotechnology. J Food Sci 71: R107-R116. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00195.x
  25. Kreilgaard M. 2002. Influence of microemulsions on cutaneous drug delivery. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 54: S77-S98. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-409X(02)00116-3
  26. McClements DJ, Rao J. 2011. Food-grade nanoemulsions: formulation, fabrication, properties, performance, biological fate, and potential toxicity. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 51: 285-330. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2011.559558
  27. McClements DJ. 2012. Nanoemulsions versus microemulsions: terminology, differences, and similarities. Soft Matter 8: 1719-1729. https://doi.org/10.1039/C2SM06903B
  28. Mason TG, Wilking JN, Meleson K, Chang CB, Graves SM. 2006. Nanoemulsions: formation, structure, and physical properties. J Phys Condens Matter 18: R635-R666. https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/18/41/R01
  29. Tadros T, Izquierdo P, Esquena J, Solans C. 2004. Formation and stability of nano-emulsions. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 108-109: 303-318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2003.10.023
  30. Wooster TJ, Golding M, Sanguansri P. 2008. Impact of oil type on nanoemulsion formation and Ostwald ripening stability. Langmuir 24: 12758-12765. https://doi.org/10.1021/la801685v
  31. Dickinson E. 1992. Introduction to food colloids. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. p 109-110.
  32. Park EJ, Lee ES, Hong ST. 2015. A study on the formation and Ostwald ripening stability of nanoemulsion with various emulsifiers. J of Korean Oil Chemists' Soc 32: 536-545. https://doi.org/10.12925/jkocs.2015.32.3.536
  33. Ahmed K, Li Y, McClements DJ, Xiao H. 2012. Nanoemulsion- and emulsion-based delivery systems for curcumin: encapsulation and release properties. Food Chem 132: 799-807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.11.039
  34. Mengual O, Meunier G, Cayre I, Puech K, Snabre P. 1999. TURBISCAN MA 2000: multiple light scattering measurement for concentrated emulsion and suspension instability analysis. Talanta 50: 445-456. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(99)00129-0
  35. Dickinson E. 1992. Introduction to food colloids. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. p 115-119.
  36. Walstra P, Smulders PEA. 1988. Emulsion formation. In Modern Aspects of Emulsion Science. Binks BP, ed. Royal Society of Chemistry, Information Services, Cambridge, UK. p 56-99.
  37. Stang M, Schuchmann H, Schubert H. 2001. Emulsification in high-pressure homogenizers. Eng Life Sci 1: 151-157. https://doi.org/10.1002/1618-2863(200110)1:4<151::AID-ELSC151>3.0.CO;2-D
  38. Yoon SH, Choe EO, Song YO, Oh CH, Jung MY, Hong ST, Chang PS, Lee JH, Kim HJ. 2015. Food lipids. Hong ST, ed. Soohaksa, Seoul, Korea. p 247-297.
  39. McClements DJ. 2015. Food emulsions: principles, practice, and techniques. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. p 342-346.
  40. McClements DJ. 2015. Food emulsions: principles, practice, and techniques. 3rd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. p 358-365.
  41. Kabalnov AS, Shchukin ED. 1992. Ostwald ripening theory: applications to fluorocarbon emulsion stability. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 38: 69-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-8686(92)80043-W
  42. Xin X, Zhang H, Xu G, Tan Y, Zhang J, Lv X. 2013. Influence of CTAB and SDS on the properties of oil-in-water nano-emulsion with paraffin and span 20/Tween 20. Colloids Surf A 418: 60-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2012.10.065
  43. Walstra P. 2003. Physical chemistry of foods. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, USA. p 450-462.
  44. Lim SS, Baik MY, Decker EA, Henson L, Popplewell LM, McClements DJ, Choi SJ. 2011. Stabilization of orange oil-in-water emulsions: A new role for ester gum as an Ostwald ripening inhibitor. Food Chem 128: 1023-1028. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.04.008
  45. McClements DJ. 2005. Food emulsions: principles, practice, and techniques. 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. p 131-133.