- Volume 21 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
Investigation of Phenolic, Flavonoid, and Vitamin Contents in Different Parts of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)
- Kim, Ji-Sang (Department of Food, Nutrition and Biotechnology, Kyungnam University)
- Received : 2016.06.01
- Accepted : 2016.06.21
- Published : 2016.09.30
This study investigated the phenolic, flavonoid, and vitamin constituents in the main root, root hair, and leaf of ginseng. The total individual phenolic and flavonoid contents were the highest in the leaf, followed by the main root and root hair. Ferulic acid and m-coumaric acid were found to be the major phenolics in the main root and root hair, while p-coumaric acid and m-coumaric acid were the major phenolics in the leaf. Catechin was the major flavonoid component in the main root and root hair, while catechin and kaempferol were the major flavonoid components in the leaf. Pantothenic acid was detected in the highest quantity in the non-leaf parts of ginseng, followed by thiamine and cobalamin. Linolenic acid and menadione were the major components in all parts of ginseng.
Supported by : Kyungnam University
- Kang KS, Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Park JH. 2006. Study on the nitric oxide scavenging effects of ginseng and its compounds. J Agric Food Chem 54: 2558-2562. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0529520
- Jung MY, Jeon BS, Bock JY. 2002. Free, esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolic acids in white and red Korean ginsengs (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Food Chem 79: 105-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00185-1
- Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. 1999. Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochem Pharmacol 58: 1685-1693. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-2952(99)00212-9
- Hu C, Kitts DD. 2001. Free radical scavenging capacity as related to antioxidant activity and ginsenoside composition of Asian and North American ginseng extracts. J Am Oil Chem Soc 78: 249-255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-001-0253-8
- Kitts DD, Wijewickreme AN, Hu C. 2000. Antioxidant properties of a North American ginseng extract. Mol Cell Biochem 203: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007078414639
- Dziedzic SZ, Hudson BJF. 1983. Hydroxy isoflavones as antioxidants for edible oils. Food Chem 11: 161-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(83)90099-7
- Park HS, Kwak TH, Bae JH, Moon DG, Kim JJ, Cheon J. 2004. Development of the novel anti-cancer immunotherapy for human prostate cancer: in vivo characterization of an immunotropic and anti-cancer activities of the new polysaccharide from the leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Eur Urol Suppl 3: 365-366.
- Xie JT, Mehendale SR, Wang A, Han AH, Wu JA, Osinski J, Yuan CS. 2004. American ginseng leaf: ginsenoside analysis and hypoglycemic activity. Pharmacol Res 49: 113-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2003.07.015
- Fishbein AB, Wang CZ, Li XL, Mehendale SR, Sun S, Aung HH, Yuan CS. 2009. Asian ginseng enhances the anti-proliferative effect of 5-fluorouracil on human colorectal cancer: comparison between white and red ginseng. Arch Pharm Res 32: 505-513. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12272-009-1405-9
- Ball GMF. 2006. Vitamins in foods: analysis, bioavailability, and stability. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. p 3.
- Finglas PM, Faure U, Wagstaffe PJ. 1993. Improvements in the determination of vitamins in food through intercomparisons and preparation of RMs for vitamin analysis within the BCR1 programme. Fresenius J Anal Chem 345: 180-184. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00322584
- ISO. 2005. Determination of substances characteristic of green and black tea - Part 1: Content of total polyphenols in tea - Colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. ISO 14502-1:2005.
- Woisky RG, Salatino A. 1998. Analysis of propolis: some parameters and procedures for chemical quality control. J Apic Res 37: 99-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/00218839.1998.11100961
- Mattila P, Kumpulainen J. 2002. Determination of free and total phenolic acids in plant-derived foods by HPLC with diode-array detection. J Agric Food Chem 50: 3660-3667. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020028p
- Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH, Venema DP. 1992. Optimization of a quantitative HPLC determination of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids in vegetables and fruits. J Agric Food Chem 40: 1591-1598. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00021a023
- Cho CM, Ko JH, Cheong WJ. 2000. Simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins excreted in human urine after eating an overdose of vitamin pills by a HPLC method coupled with a solid phase extraction. Talanta 51: 799-806. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(00)00283-6
- Djeridane A, Yousfi M, Nadjemi B, Boutassouna D, Stocker P, Vidal N. 2006. Antioxidant activity of some algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds. Food Chem 97: 654-660. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.04.028
- Pan Y, Liang Y, Wang H, Liang M. 2004. Antioxidant activities of several Chinese medicine herbs. Food Chem 88: 347-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.002
- Franco D, Sineiro J, Pinelo M, Nunez MJ. 2007. Ethanolic extraction of Rosa rubiginosa soluble substances: oil solubility equilibria and kinetic studies. J Food Eng 79: 150-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.01.047
- John JA, Shahidi F. 2010. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa). J Funct Foods 2: 196-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2010.04.008
- Sakakibara H, Honda Y, Nakagawa S, Ashida H, Kanazawa K. 2003. Simultaneous determination of all polyphenols in vegetables, fruits, and teas. J Agric Food Chem 51: 571-581. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020926l
- Rauter AP, Dias C, Martins A, Branco I, Neng NR, Nogueira JM, Goulart M, Silva FVM, Justino J, Trevitt C, Waltho JP. 2012. Non-toxic Salvia sclareoides Brot. extracts as a source of functional food ingredients: Phenolic profile, antioxidant activity and prion binding properties. Food Chem 132: 1930-1935. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.12.028
- Lin L, Lei F, Sun DW, Dong Y, Yang B, Zhao M. 2012. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) Hara leaf peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase and comparative evaluation of drying methods on leaf phenolic profile and bioactivities. Food Chem 134: 2021-2029. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.008
- Juliani HR, Simon JE. 2002. Antioxidant activity of basil. In Trends in New Crops and New Uses. Janick J, Whipkey A, eds. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, USA. p 575-579.
- Gao X, Bjork L, Trajkovski V, Uggla M. 2000. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of rosehip ethanol extracts in different test systems. J Sci Food Agric 80: 2021-2027. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0010(200011)80:14<2021::AID-JSFA745>3.0.CO;2-2
- Han BH, Park MH, Han YN. 1985. Studies on the antioxidant components of Korean ginseng (V): the mechanism of antioxidant activity of maltol and phenolic acids. Korean Biochem J 18: 337-340.
- Wee JJ, Hoe JN, Kim MW. 1996. Analysis of phenolic components in Korean red ginseng by GS/MS. Korean J Ginseng Res 20: 284-290.
- Choi SY, Cho CW, Lee Y, Kim SS, Lee SH, Kim KT. 2012. Comparison of ginsenoside and phenolic ingredient contents in hydroponically-cultivated ginseng leaves, fruits, and roots. J Ginseng Res 36: 425-429. https://doi.org/10.5142/jgr.2012.36.4.425
- Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. 1996. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 20: 933-956. https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(95)02227-9
- Ludwiczuk A, Wolski T, Holderna-Kedzia E. 2006. Estimation of the chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of extracts received from leaves and roots of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.). Herba Pol 52: 79-90.
- Jung CH, Seog HM, Choi IW, Park MW, Cho HY. 2006. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from wild ginseng leaves. LWT-Food Sci Tehnol 39: 266-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2005.01.004
- Pawliszyn J. 2012. Comprehensive sampling and sample preparation. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA. p 3.
- Chronocoulometric method for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity of medicinal plant tinctures vol.10, pp.41, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1039/C8AY01907J
- L.) Juices and Their By-Products as Ingredients Showing Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties for Chewing Candy: Nutraceutical Formulations vol.2018, pp.1745-4557, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3474202