- Volume 41 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
Development of Internal Dose Assessment Procedure for Workers in Industries Using Raw Materials Containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials
- Choi, Cheol Kyu (College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University) ;
- Kim, Yong Geon (College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University) ;
- Ji, Seung Woo (College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University) ;
- Koo, Boncheol (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) ;
- Chang, Byung Uck (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) ;
- Kim, Kwang Pyo (College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University)
- Received : 2016.04.15
- Accepted : 2016.07.12
- Published : 2016.09.30
Background: It is necessary to assess radiation dose to workers due to inhalation of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to ensure radiological safety required by the Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The objective of this study is to develop an internal dose assessment procedure for workers at industries using raw materials containing natural radionuclides. Materials and Methods: The dose assessment procedure was developed based on harmonization, accuracy, and proportionality. The procedure includes determination of dose assessment necessity, preliminary dose estimation, airborne particulate sampling and characterization, and detailed assessment of radiation dose. Results and Discussion: The developed dose assessment procedure is as follows. Radioactivity concentration criteria to determine dose assessment necessity are
Grant : Establishment of Technical Basis for Implementation on Safety Management for Radiation in the Natural Environment
Supported by : Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Assessing the need for radiation protection measures in work involving minerals and raw materials. IAEA Safety Report Series No 49. 2006;11-26.
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Radiation protection and NORM residue management in the zircon and zirconia industries. IAEA Safety Reports Series No 51. 2007;51-61.
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Radiation Protection and NORM Residue Management in the Production of Rare Earths from Thorium Containing Minerals. IAEA Safety Reports Series No 68. 2011;97-112.
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Radiation protection and NORM residue management in the titanium dioxide and related industries. IAEA Safety Reports Series No 76. 2012;62-74.
- Van der steen J, Timmermans CWM, Van Weer AW, Degrange JP, Lefaure C, Shaw PV. Strategies and methods for optimisation of protection against internal exposures of workers from industrial natural sources (SMOPIE). NRG report 20790. 2004;13-20.
- Kim KP, Wu CY, Birky BK, Bolch WE. TENORM aerosols in the Florida phosphate industry assessment of lung fluid solubility and annual effective dose to workers. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2007;123(1):41-55. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncl083
- Florida Industrial and Phosphate Research Institute. Characterization of objects contaminated by technological enhanced naturally occuring radioactive materials (TENORM) within the phosphate industry. FIPR Publication No. 05-059-191. 2001;9-21.
- Roper AR, Stabin MG, Delapp RC, Kosson DS. Analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in coal combustion fly ash, gymsum, and scrubber residue samples. Health Phys. 2013;104(3): 264-269. https://doi.org/10.1097/HP.0b013e318279f3bf
- European Radiation Dosimetry Group. IDEAS Guidelines for the estimation of committed doses from incorporation monitoring data. EURADOS Report 2013-01. 2013;1-22.
- United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Air sampling in the workplace. U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.25. 1992;1-9.
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance. IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.7. 2004;7-11.
- United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Air sampling in the workplace. U.S. NRC NUREG-1400. 1993;1-4.
- Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Guideline for Ensuring Safety of Raw Materials and Products Containing Uranium or Thorium. 2009;11-13.
- International Commission on Radiological Protection. Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection. ICRP Publication 66. 1994;75-77.
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: international basic safety standards. IAEA Safety Standards Series GSR part 3. 2014;29-30.
- International Commission on Radiological Protection. The 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103. 2007;104-118.
- Hinds WC. Aerosol technology: properties, behavior, and measurement of airborne particulates. 2nd Ed. New York NY. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1999;8-10.
- Marshall M, Stevens DC. The purposes, methods and accuracy of sampling for airborne particulate radioactive materials. Health Phys. 1980;39(3):409-423. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-198009000-00003