Development of a Fission Product Transport Module Predicting the Behavior of Radiological Materials during Severe Accidents in a Nuclear Power Plant

  • Received : 2015.07.17
  • Accepted : 2016.09.13
  • Published : 2016.09.30


Background: Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is developing a fission product transport module for predicting the behavior of radioactive materials in the primary cooling system of a nuclear power plant as a separate module, which will be connected to a severe accident analysis code, Core Meltdown Progression Accident Simulation Software (COMPASS). Materials and Methods: This fission product transport (COMPASS-FP) module consists of a fission product release model, an aerosol generation model, and an aerosol transport model. In the fission product release model there are three submodels based on empirical correlations, and they are used to simulate the fission product gases release from the reactor core. In the aerosol generation model, the mass conservation law and Raoult's law are applied to the mixture of vapors and droplets of the fission products in a specified control volume to find the generation of the aerosol droplet. In the aerosol transport model, empirical correlations available from the open literature are used to simulate the aerosol removal processes owing to the gravitational settling, inertia impaction, diffusiophoresis, and thermophoresis. Results and Discussion: The COMPASS-FP module was validated against Aerosol Behavior Code Validation and Evaluation (ABCOVE-5) test performed by Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory for comparing the prediction and test data. The comparison results assuming a non-spherical aerosol shape for the suspended aerosol mass concentration showed a good agreement with an error range of about ${\pm}6%$. Conclusion: It was found that the COMPASS-FP module produced the reasonable results of the fission product gases release, the aerosol generation, and the gravitational settling in the aerosol removal processes for ABCOVE-5. However, more validation for other aerosol removal models needs to be performed.


Supported by : Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP)


  1. Randall Gauntt, et al. Fukushima daiichi accident study (status as of April 2012). Sandia National Lavoratories Report SAND 2012-6173.
  2. Bae JH, Park JH, Kim JT, Park RJ, Rhee BW, Song JH, Kim DH. The verification/validation report for the core heat-up module. KAERI TR-5694. 2014;1-33.
  3. Han TY, Hong SJ, Hwang SH, Lee BC, Byun CS. Object-oriented programming in the development of containment analysis code. The Korea Nuclear Society Spring Meeting, Jeju Korea. May 21-22, 2009.
  4. Kuhlman MR, Meyer RO. CORSOR user's manual. Battelle's Columbus Laboratories Report NUREG/CR-4173. 1985;1-14.
  5. Lorenz RA, Collins JL, Malinauskas AP, Kirkland OL, Towns RL. Fission product release from highly irradiated LWR fuel. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report NUREG/CR-0772. 1980;100-106.
  6. Lorenz RA, Osborne MF. A summary of IRNL fission product release tests with recommended release rates and diffusion coefficients. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report NUREG/CR-6261. 1995;16-23.
  7. Soffer L, Burson SB, Ferrell CM, Lee RY, Ridgely JN. Accident source terms for light-water nuclear power plant. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Report NUREG/1465. 1995;5-14.
  8. Cho CS, et al. APRIL.MOD3 computer code-user manual. RPI report. 1990;1-22.
  9. Barin I, Knacke O. Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. 1st Ed. Berlin Germany. Springer-Verlag. 1973;552-634.
  10. Collier JG, Thome JR. Convective boiling and condensation. 3rd Ed. Gloucestershire UK. Clarendon Press. 1994;536-537.
  11. Press WH, Teukolsky SA, Vetterling WT, Flannery BP. Numerical recipes. 3rd Ed. Cambridge UK. Cambridge University Press, 2007;445-448.
  12. Epstein M and Ellison PG. Correlations of the rate of removal of coagulating and depositing aerosols for application to nuclear reactor safety problems. Nucl. Eng. Des. 1988;107:327-344.
  13. Lahey RT, Moody FJ. The thermal-hydraulics of a boiling water nuclear reactor. 2nd Ed. La Grange Park IL. American Nuclear Society. 1993;401-409.
  14. Epstein M, Ellison PG. Thermophoretic deposition of particles in nature convection flow from a vertical plate. J. Heat Transfer. 1985;107:272-276.
  15. Souto FJ, Haskin FE, Kmetyk LN. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: aerosol experiments ABCOVE AB5, AB6, AB7, and LACE LA2. Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND94-2166. 1994;4-49.
  16. Lee TB, Lee DK, Lee HS, Lee GW, Choi TS, Park RJ, Kim DH. Preliminary evaluation of CSPACE for a station blackout transient in APR1400. The Korea Nuclear Society Spring Meeting, Jeju Korea, May 12-13, 2016.
  17. Fuchs NA. The Mechanics of aerosol. 2nd Ed. New York NY. Dover Publication. 1989;288-338.