Relationship between the Deposition of Tear Constituents and the Adherence of Candida albicans according to Soft Contact Lens Materials and Pigmentation

소프트콘택트렌즈 재질과 착색에 따른 눈물성분 침착과 칸디다균 흡착의 상관관계

  • Park, So Hyun (Dept. of Optometry, Seoul National University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Kim, So Ra (Dept. of Optometry, Seoul National University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Park, Mijung (Dept. of Optometry, Seoul National University of Science and Technology)
  • 박소현 (서울과학기술대학교 안경광학과) ;
  • 김소라 (서울과학기술대학교 안경광학과) ;
  • 박미정 (서울과학기술대학교 안경광학과)
  • Received : 2016.08.17
  • Accepted : 2016.09.07
  • Published : 2016.09.30


Purpose: The aim of this study was to figure out how the characteristics of soft contact lens materials and pigmentation affect the adherence of C. albicans on soft contact lenses pre-deposited with tear constituents. Methods: The adherent number of C. albicans on clear soft contact lenses (hereinafter clear lenses) and circle soft contact lenses (hereinafter circle lenses) made of etafilcon A, hilaiflcon B and nelfilcon A, respectively, was measured before and after the deposition of artificial tear. Also, bacteria adherence on lenses were observed by a scanning electron microscope. Results: Adherence of C. albicans was significantly different according to lens materials. The amount of adsorption was not different between clear lenses and circle lenses made of etafilcon A however, the number of bacteria absorption was bigger in hilafilcon B and nelfilcon A lenses. More absorption of C. albicans was found in the non-pigmented central area compared the pigmented area, and non-pigmented peripheral area has more bacterial absorption than non-pigmented central area. The number of C. albicans decreased in the case that tear protein was pre-deposited. The maintenance of antibacterial activity against C. albicans was different according to lens materials thus, etafilcon A has the longest period of its maintenance. Conclusions: It was revealed that the number of C. albicans was different according to the characteristics of lens materials, pigmentation or non-pigmentation, the pigmented area of soft contact lenses. Thus, it is suggested that the management method should be different according to the adsorption characteristics of C. albicans.


Clear soft contact lenses;Circle soft contact lenses;Material;Pigmentation;C. albicans;Tear protein;Lysozyme;Scanning electron microscope


Supported by : 서울과학기술대학교


  1. Korean Optometric Association. Gallup Korea : National contact lens utilization in the first half of 2015, 2015. December 2015).
  2. Ruben M, Guillon M. Contact lens practice, 1st Ed. London: Chapman & Hall, 1994:667-720.
  3. Jung MA, Lee HJ. Survey on cosmetic color contact lens wear status of middle school, high school and college students. Korean J Vis Sci. 2013;15(4):439-446.
  4. Quinn MH, Atkins BL. Pearlecent contact lens. U.S. Patent 6196683, 2001.
  5. Lee HM, Kim JK, Cho TS. Antimicrobial hydrogel contact lens containing alginate. Bull Korean Chem Soc. 2011;32(12):4239-4243.
  6. Lee S, Park M, Kim SR. The difference in tear film stability between normal and dry eyes by wearing clear and circle contact lenses made of the same materials. J Korean Ophthalmic Opt Soc. 2016;21(1):11-21.
  7. OnurdagFK, Ozkan S, Ozgen S, OlmusH, Abbasoglu U. Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion on soft contact lenses. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011;249(4):559-564.
  8. Giraldez MJ, Resua CG, Lira M, Oliveira ME, Magarinos B, Toranzo AE et al. Contact lens hydrophobicity and roughness effects on bacterial adhesion. Optom Vis Sci. 2010;87(6):E426-E431.
  9. Chan KY, Cho P, Boost M. Microbial adherence to cosmetic contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2014;37(4):267-272.
  10. Suwala M, Glasier MA, Subbaraman LN, Jones L. Quantity and conformation of lysozyme deposited on conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials using an in vitro model. Eye Contact Lens. 2007;33(3):138-143.
  11. Sariri R, Tighe B. Effect of surface chemistry on protein interaction with hydrogel contact lenses. Iran Polym J. 1996;5(4):259-266.
  12. Norde W. Adsorption of proteins from solution at the solid-liquid interface. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 1986;25(4):267-340.
  13. Subbaraman LN, Borazjani R, Zhu H, Zhao Z, Jones L, Willcox MD. Influence of protein deposition on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Optom Vis Sci. 2011;88(8):959-966.
  14. Lee JS, Hahn TW, Choi SH, Yu HS, Lee JE. Acanthamoeba keratitis related to cosmetic contact lenses. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;35(8):775-777.
  15. Bucci FA Jr, Evans RE, Moody KJ, Tanner JB, Capozza RC, Klyce SD. The annular tinted contact lens syndrome: corneal topographic analysis of ring-shaped irregular astigmatism caused by annular tinted contact lenses. CLAO J. 1997;23(3):161-167.
  16. Spraul CW, Roth HJ, Gackle H, Lang GE, Lang GK. Influence of special-effect contact lenses (Crazy Lenses) on visual function. CLAO J. 1998;24(1):29-32.
  17. Kim SR, Kang U, Seo BM, Park M. A study on dye elution from the circle contact lenses. J Korean Ophthalmic Opt Soc. 2014;19(2):171-177.
  18. Spiteri N, Choudhary A, Kaye S. Pigmentation of the cornea secondary to tinted soft contact lens wear. Case Rep Ophthalmol Med. 2012;2012:852304.
  19. Korean contact lens study society. Contact lens: principles and practice, 1st Ed. Seoul: Naeoe Hanksool, 2007; chap 13.
  20. Lorenz KO, Kakkassery J, Boree D, Pinto D. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis of daily disposable limbal ring contact lenses. Clin Exp Optom. 2014;97(5):411-417.
  21. The Korea Optical News. The evolution of cosmetic lenses as a technology of contact lenses, 2014. (19 December 2014).
  22. Baguet J, Sommer F, Claudon-Eyl V, Duc TM. Characterization of lacrymal component accumulation on worn soft contact lens surfaces by atomic force microscopy. Biomaterials. 1995;16(1):3-9.
  23. Bruinsma GM, Rustema-Abbing M, de Vries J, Stegenga B, van der Mei HC, van der Linden ML et al. Influence of wear and overwear on surface properties of etafilcon A contact lenses and adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43(12):3646-3653.
  24. Park SH, Park IS, Kim SR, Park M. Relationship between the deposition of tear constituents on soft contact lenses according to material and pigmentation and adherence of Staphylococcus aureus. J Korean Ophthalmic Opt Soc. 2016;21(2):109-117.
  25. Health Chosun. USA, Fungal infections emergency of contact lens users, 2006. April 2016).
  26. Medical Observer. Fungal infections emergency of contact lens, 2006. April 2016).
  27. Galentine PG, Cohen EJ, Laibson PR, Adams CP, Michaud R, Arentsen JJ. Corneal ulcers associated with contact lens wear. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102(6):891-894.
  28. Park M, Kwon MJ, Hyun SH, Kim DS. The adsorption pattern of protein to the soft contact lens and its effect on the visible light transmission and the contact angle. Korean Ophthalmic Opt Soc. 2004;9(1):53-68.
  29. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951;193(1):265-275.
  30. Onurdag FK, Ozkan S, Ozgen S, Olmus H, Abbasoglu U. Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion on soft contact lenses. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011;249(4):559-564.
  31. Imamura Y, Chandra J, Mukherjee PK, Lattif AA, Szczotka-Flynn LB, Pearlman E et al. Fusarium and Candida albicans biofilms on soft contact lenses: model development, influence of lens type, and susceptibility to lens care solutions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52(1):171-182.
  32. Simmons RB, Buffington JR, Ward M, Wilson LA, Ahearn DG. Morphology and ultrastructure of fungi in extended-wear soft contact lenses. J Clin Microbiol. 1986;24(1):21-25.
  33. Fleming A. On a remarkable bacteriolytic element found in tissues and secretions. Proc Roy Soc. 1922;93(653):306-317.
  34. Leitch EC, Willcox MD. Lactoferrin increases the susceptibility of S. epidermidis biofilms to lysozyme and vancomycin. Curr Eye Res. 1999;19(1):12-19.
  35. Tobgi RS, Samaranayake LP, MacFarlane TW. In vitro susceptibility of Candida species to lysozyme. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1988;3(1):35-39.
  36. Samaranayake YH, Samaranayake LP, Wu PC, So M. The antifungal effect of lactoferrin and lysozyme on Candida krusei and Candida albicans. APMIS. 1997;105(11):875-883.
  37. Fukazawa Y, Shinoda T, Tsuchiya T. Response and specificity of antibodies for Candida albicans. J Bacteriol. 1968;95(3):754-763.
  38. Giraldez MJ, Yebra-Pimentel E. Hydrogel contact lens surface roughness and bacterial adhesion. INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2012;95-120.
  39. Ji YW, Cho YJ, Lee CH, Hong SH, Chung DY, Kim EK et al. Comparison of surface roughness and bacterial adhesion between cosmetic contact lenses and conventional contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2015;41(1):25-33.

Cited by

  1. The Stability and Safety Evaluations of Soft Contact Lenses past their Expiry Date vol.22, pp.1, 2017,
  2. Correlation between Tear Proteins Deposition and Oxygen Transmissibility of Soft Contact Lenses vol.22, pp.2, 2017,
  3. Evaluation for Surficial and Internal Hydrophilicity of Soft Contact Lenses vol.22, pp.3, 2017,