- Volume 16 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
A Simplified Synchronous Reference Frame for Indirect Current Controlled Three-level Inverter-based Shunt Active Power Filters
- Hoon, Yap ;
- Radzi, Mohd Amran Mohd ;
- Hassan, Mohd Khair ;
- Mailah, Nashiren Farzilah ;
- Wahab, Noor Izzri Abdul
- Received : 2015.12.17
- Accepted : 2016.05.29
- Published : 2016.09.20
This paper presents a new simplified harmonics extraction algorithm based on the synchronous reference frame (SRF) for an indirect current controlled (ICC) three-level neutral point diode clamped (NPC) inverter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF). The shunt APF is widely accepted as one of the most effective current harmonics mitigation tools due to its superior adaptability in dynamic state conditions. In its controller, the SRF algorithm which is derived based on the direct-quadrature (DQ) theory has played a significant role as a harmonics extraction algorithm due to its simple implementation features. However, it suffers from significant delays due to its dependency on a numerical filter and unnecessary computation workloads. Moreover, the algorithm is mostly implemented for the direct current controlled (DCC) based SAPF which operates based on a non-sinusoidal reference current. This degrades the mitigation performances since the DCC based operation does not possess exact information on the actual source current which suffers from switching ripples problems. Therefore, three major improvements are introduced which include the development of a mathematical based fundamental component identifier to replace the numerical filter, the removal of redundant features, and the generation of a sinusoidal reference current. The proposed algorithm is developed and evaluated in MATLAB / Simulink. A laboratory prototype utilizing a TMS320F28335 digital signal processor (DSP) is also implemented to validate effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Both simulation and experimental results are presented. They show significant improvements in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD) and dynamic response when compared to a conventional SRF algorithm.
Active power filter;Current harmonics;DQ theory;Dynamic response;Multilevel inverter;Power quality
- B. Singh, K. Al-Haddad, and A. Chandra, "A review of active filters for power quality improvement," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 46, No. 5, pp. 960-971, Oct. 1999. https://doi.org/10.1109/41.793345
- H. Akagi, "Active harmonic filters," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 93, No. 12, pp. 2128-2141, Dec. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2005.859603
- J. Rodríguez, J.-S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, "Multilevel inverters: a survey of topologies, controls and applications," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 724-738, Aug. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2002.801052
- D. Soto and T. C. Green, "A comparison of high-power converter topologies for the implementation of FACTS controllers," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 49, No. 5, pp. 1072-1080, Oct. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2002.803217
- A. M. Massoud, S. J. Finney, A. J. Cruden, and B. W. Williams, "Three-phase, three-wire, five-level cascaded shunt active filter for power conditioning, using two different space vector modulation techniques," IEEE Trans. Power Del., Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 2349-2361, Oct. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2007.905447
- C. Salim and B. M. Toufik, "Three-level (NPC) shunt active power filter performances based on fuzzy controller for harmonic currents compensation under non-ideal voltage conditions," International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 342-358, Jun. 2014. https://doi.org/10.15676/ijeei.2014.6.2.9
- Y. Hoon, M. A. M. Radzi, M. K. Hassan, and N. F. Mailah, "Enhanced instantaneous power theory with average algorithm for indirect current controlled three-level inverter-based shunt active power filter under dynamic state conditions," Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Vol. 2016, p. 12, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9682512
- A. Bhattacharya and C. Chakraborty, "A shunt active power filter with enhanced performance using ANN-based predictive and adaptive controllers," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 421-428, Feb. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2010.2070770
- N. Eskandarian, Y. A. Beromi, and S. Farhangi, "Improvement of dynamic behavior of shunt active power filter using fuzzy instantaneous power theory," Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 1303-1313, Nov. 2014. https://doi.org/10.6113/JPE.2014.14.6.1303
- M. Monfared, S. Golestan, and J. M. Guerrero, "A new synchronous reference frame-based method for single-phase shunt active power filters," Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 692-700, Jul. 2013. https://doi.org/10.6113/JPE.2013.13.4.692
- P. Dey and S. Mekhilef, "Synchronous reference frame based control technique for shunt hybrid active power filter under non-ideal voltage," in IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia), pp. 481-486, May 2014.
- N. Jain and A. Gupta, "Comparison between two compensation current control methods of shunt active power filter," International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 603-615, Aug./Sep. 2014.
- M. Sunitha and B. N. Kartheek, "Elimination of harmonics using active power filter based on DQ reference frame theory," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 781-785, Apr. 2013.
- R. Sriranjani and S. Jayalalitha, "Average direct and quadrature axis based reference current generation for shunt active filter using Xilinx blockset toolbox - a Simulink approach," in International Conference on Smart Technologies and Management for Computing, Communication, Controls, Energy and Materials (ICSTM), pp. 331-337, May 2015.
- A. Mortezaei, C. Lute, M. G. Simoes, F. P. Marafao, and A. Boglia, "PQ, DQ and CPT control methods for shunt active compensators - a comparative study," in IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), pp. 2994-3001, Sep. 2014.
- X. Wang, J. Liu, J. Hu, Y. Meng, and C. Yuan, "Frequency characteristics of the synchronous-frame based D-Q methods for active power filters," Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 91-100, Jan. 2008.
- J. H. Marks and T. C. Green, "Predictive transient-following control of shunt and series active power filters," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 574-584, Jul. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2002.800970
- A. Pigazo, V. M. Moreno, and E. J. Estebanez, "A recursive park transformation to improve the performance of synchronous reference frame controllers in shunt active Power Filters," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 24, No. 9, pp. 2065-2075, Sep. 2009.
- S. S. Wamane, J. R. Baviskar, and S. R. Wagh, "A comparative study on compensating current generation algorithms for shunt active filter under non-linear load conditions," International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 1-6, Jun. 2013.
- Z. Chen and D. Xu, "Delayless harmonic detection based on DSP with high-accuracy for active power filter," in Twentieth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Vol. 3, pp. 1817-1823, Mar. 2005.
- S. Sujitjom, K.-L. Areerak, and T. Kulworawanichpong, "The DQ axis with fourier (DQF) method for harmonic identification," IEEE Trans. Power Del., Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 737-739, Jan. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2006.882465
- M. Popescu, A. Bitoleanu, and V. Suru, "A DSP-based implementation of the p-q theory in active power filtering under nonideal voltage conditions," IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat., Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 880-889, May 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TII.2012.2223223
- M. K. Syed and B. S. Ram, "Instantaneous power theory based active power filter: a matlab/simulink approach," Journal of Theoretical & Applied Information Technology, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 536-541, 2008.
- O. Vodyakho and C. C. Mi, "Three-level inverter-based shunt active power filter in three-phase three-wire and four-wire systems," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 1350-1363, May 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2009.2016663
- C. L. Chen, C. E. Lin, and C. L. Huang, "Reactive and harmonic current compensation for unbalanced three-phase systems using the synchronous detection method," Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 163-170, Apr. 1993. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-7796(93)90009-4
- G. Bhuvaneswari, M. G. Nair, and S. K. Reddy, "Comparison of synchronous detection and I. Cos φ shunt active filtering algorithms," in International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems, pp. 1-5, 2006.
- M. Forghani and S. Afsharnia, "Online wavelet transform-based control strategy for UPQC control system," IEEE Trans. Power Del., Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 481-491, Jan. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2006.883026
- M. A. M. Radzi and N. A. Rahim, "Neural network and bandless hysteresis approach to control switched capacitor active power filter for reduction of harmonics," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 1477-1484, May 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2009.2013750
- B. Singh, V. Verma, and J. Solanki, "Neural network-based selective compensation of current quality problems in distribution system," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 53-60, Feb. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2006.888754
- J. Fei, T. Li, F. Wang, and W. Juan, "A novel sliding mode control technique for indirect current controlled active power filter," Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Vol. 2012, p. 18, 2012.
- M. Adel, S. Zaid, and O. Mahgoub, "Improved active power fIlter performance based on an indirect current control technique," Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 931-937, Nov. 2011. https://doi.org/10.6113/JPE.2011.11.6.931
- B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, and K. Al-Haddad, "Performance comparison of two current control techniques applied to an active filter," in 8th International Conference on Harmonics Quality of Power Proceedings (ICHQP), Vol. 1, pp. 133-138, Oct. 1998.
- S. Rahmani, K. Al-Haddad, and H. Y. Kanan, "Experimental design and simulation of a modified PWM with an indirect current control technique applied to a single-phase shunt active power filter," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Vol. 2, pp. 519-524, Jun. 2005.
- G. M. Babu, "Simulation study of indirect current control technique for shunt active filter," International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 831-851, Jul./Aug. 2013.
- A. Testa and R. Langella, "IEEE Recommended Practice and Requirement for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems," IEEE Recommended Practice, Piscataway(NJ) 2014.
- S. P. Diwan, H. P. Inamdar, and A. P. Vaidya, "Simulation studies of shunt passive harmonic filters: six pulse rectifier load power factor improvement and harmonic control," ACEEE International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-6, Feb. 2011.
- L. H. Tey, P. L. So, and Y. C. Chu, "Improvement of power quality using adaptive shunt active filter," IEEE Trans. Power Del., Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 1558-1568, Apr. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2004.838641
- T. R. Deva and N. K. Nair, "ANN based control algorithm for harmonic elimination and power factor correction using shunt active filter," International Journal of Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 152-157, 2007.
- N. A. Rahman, M. A. M. Radzi, N. Mariun, A. C. Soh, and N. A. Rahim, "Integration of dual intelligent algorithms in shunt active power filter," in IEEE Conference on Clean Energy and Technology (CEAT), pp. 259-264, Nov. 2013.
- K. H. Bhalodi and P. Agarwal, "Space vector modulation with DC-link voltage balancing control for three-level inverters," in International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems, pp. 1-6, Dec. 2006.
- Y-H. Lee, B-S. Suh, and D-S. Hyun, "A novel PWM scheme for a three-level voltage source inverter with GTO thyristors," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 260-268, Mar./Apr. 1996. https://doi.org/10.1109/28.491473
- D. Zhou and D. G. Rouaud, "Experimental comparisons of space vector neutral point balancing strategies for three-level topology," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 872-879, Nov. 2001. https://doi.org/10.1109/63.974387
- A. K. Gupta and A. M. Khambadkone, "A space vector PWM scheme for multilevel inverters based on two-level space vector PWM," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 53, No. 5, pp. 1631-1639, Oct. 2006. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2006.881989
- H. Hu, W. Yao, and Z. Lu, "Design and implementation of three-level space vector PWM IP core for FPGAs," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 2234-2244, Nov. 2007.
- J. Tlusty, J. Skramlik, J. Svec, and V. Valouch, "Analytical modeling and simulation of four-switch hybrid power filter working with sixfold switching symmetry," Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Vol. 2012, p. 17, Aug. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/292178
- C. H. Ng, K. Busawon, G. A. Putrus, and L. Ran, "Fast-individual-harmonic-extraction technique," IEE Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 152, No. 4, pp. 556-562, Jul. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-gtd:20045072
- M. Tamilvani, K. Nithya, M. Srinivasan, and S.U. Prabha, "Harmonic reduction in variable frequency drives using active power filter," Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 119-126, Jun. 2014. https://doi.org/10.12928/eei.v3i2.270
- S. Rahmani, A. Hamadi, N. Mendalek, and K. Al-Haddad, "A new control technique for three-phase shunt hybrid power filter," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 56, No. 8, pp. 2904-2915, Aug. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2008.2010829
- R. R. Sawant and M. C. Chandorkar, "A multifunctional four-leg grid-connected compensator," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 249-259, Jan./Feb. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2008.2009704
- L. S. Shilpa, R. Divya, and M. G. Nair, "Grid connected solar photovoltaic system with shunt active filtering capability under transient load conditions," in International Conference on Advancements in Power and Energy (TAP Energy), pp. 345-350, Jun. 2015.
- E. Lavopa, P. Zanchetta, M. Summer, and F. Cupertino, "Real-time estimation of fundamental frequency and harmonics for active shunt power filters in aircraft electrical systems," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 56, No. 8, pp. 2875-2884, Aug. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2009.2015292
- P. Zanchetta, M. Degano, J. Liu, and P. Mattavelli, "Iterative learning control with variable sampling frequency for current control of grid-connected converters in aircraft power systems," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 1548-1555, Jul./Aug. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2013.2255575
- W. Hosny, H.-E. Park, and J.-H. Song, "Investigation of shunt active power filters in railway systems, substation installation," Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 10, pp. 1974-1979, Oct. 2013.
- H. Park, J. Song, and W. M. Hosny, "Comparative study on the position of shunt active power filters in 25 kV AC railway systems," IETE Technical Review, Vol. 29, No. 5, pp. 421-431, 2012. https://doi.org/10.4103/0256-4602.103176
- A. Eid, M. Abdel-Salam, H. El-Kishky, and T. El-Mohandes, "Active power filters for harmonic cancellation in conventional and advanced aircraft electric power systems," Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 80-88, Jan. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2008.05.005
- Y. Han, P. Shen, and J. M. Guerrero, "Stationary frame current control evaluations for three-phase grid-connected inverters with PVR-based active damped LCL filters," Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 297-309, Jan. 2016. https://doi.org/10.6113/JPE.2016.16.1.297
- Q. Liu, L. Peng, Y. Kang, S. Tang, D. Wu, and Y. Qi, "A novel design and optimization method of an LCL filter for a shunt active power filter," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 61, No. 8, pp. 4000-4010, Aug. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2013.2282592
- A Refined Self-Tuning Filter-Based Instantaneous Power Theory Algorithm for Indirect Current Controlled Three-Level Inverter-Based Shunt Active Power Filters under Non-sinusoidal Source Voltage Conditions vol.10, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030277
- A Self-Tuning Filter-Based Adaptive Linear Neuron Approach for Operation of Three-Level Inverter-Based Shunt Active Power Filters under Non-Ideal Source Voltage Conditions vol.10, pp.5, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050667
- Neutral-point voltage deviation control for three-level inverter-based shunt active power filter with fuzzy-based dwell time allocation vol.10, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-pel.2016.0240
- Control Algorithms of Shunt Active Power Filter for Harmonics Mitigation: A Review vol.10, pp.12, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122038
- Operation of Three-Level Inverter-Based Shunt Active Power Filter Under Nonideal Grid Voltage Conditions With Dual Fundamental Component Extraction vol.33, pp.9, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2017.2766268