Effect of Grape Pomace Powder, Mangosteen Peel Powder and Monensin on Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, Nitrogen Balance and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Dairy Steers

  • Foiklang, S. (Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Wanapat, M. (Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Norrapoke, T. (Department of Animal Production Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industrial Technology, Kalasin University)
  • Received : 2015.08.24
  • Accepted : 2015.12.24
  • Published : 2016.10.01


This study was designed to investigate the effect of grape pomace powder (GPP), mangosteen peel powder (MPP) and monensin on feed intake, nutrients digestibility, microorganisms, rumen fermentation characteristic, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in dairy steers. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial body weight (BW) of $220{\pm}15kg$ were randomly assigned according to a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to receive four treatments. The treatments were as follows: T1 = control, T2 = supplementation with monensin at 33 mg/kg diet, T3 = supplementation with GPP at 2% of dry matter intake, and T4 = supplementation with MPP at 30 g/kg diet. The steers were offered the concentrate diet at 0.2% BW and 3% urea treated rice straw (UTRS) was fed ad libitum. It was found that GPP supplemented group had higher UTRS intake and nutrient digestibility in terms of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber than those in control group (p<0.05). Ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3-N$) and blood urea-nitrogen concentration were higher in monensin, GPP and MPP supplemented groups (p<0.05). Total volatile fatty acids and propionate in the GPP group were higher than those in the control group (p<0.05) while acetate concentration, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (p<0.01) when steers were supplemented with GPP, monensin, and MPP, respectively. Moreover, protozoal populations in GPP, MPP, and monensin supplementation were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05), while cellulolytic bacterial population was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.05). Nitrogen retention, microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were found significantly higher in steers that received GPP (p<0.05). Based on this study it could be concluded that the GPP has potential as an alternative feed supplement in concentrate diets which can result in improved rumen fermentation efficiency, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis in steers fed on treated rice straw.


Grape Pomace Powder;Mangosteen Peel Powder;Monensin;Microbial Protein Synthesis;Rumen Fermentation;Dairy Steers


  1. Barry, T. N., T. R. Manley, and S. J. Duncan. 1986. The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus peduculatus for sheep (4. Sites of carbohydrate and protein digestion as influenced by dietary reactive tannin concentration). Br. J. Nutr. 55:123-137.
  2. Bhatta, R., S. Mani, L. Saruah, L. Baruah, and K. T. Sampath. 2012. Phenolic composition, fermentation profile, protozoa population and methane production from sheanut (Butryospermum Parkii) byproducts in vitro. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 25:1389-1394.
  3. Chen, X. B. and M. J. Gomes. 1995. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives-an overview of the technical details (Occasional publication). International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, UK.
  4. Anantasook, N., M. Wanapat, and A. Cherdthong. 2014. Manipulation of ruminal fermentation and methane production by supplementation of rain tree pod meal containing tannins and saponins in growing dairy steers. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 98:50-55.
  5. Appuhamy, J. A. D. R. N., A. B. Strathe, S. Jayasundara, C. Wagner-Riddle, J. Dijkstra, J. France, and E. Kebreab. 2013. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle:A meta-analysis. J. Dairy Sci. 96:5161-5173.
  6. Crocker, C. L. 1967. Rapid determination of urea nitrogen in serum or plasma without deproteinization. Am. J. Med. Technol. 33:361-365.
  7. Foiklang, S., M. Wanapat, and T. Norrapoke. 2016. In vitro rumen fermentation and digestibility of buffaloes as influenced by grape pomace powder and urea treated rice straw supplementation. Anim. Sci. J. 87:370-377.
  8. Galyean, M. L. 1989. Laboratory Procedures in Animal Nutrition Research. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, USA.
  9. Gemeda, B. S. and A. Hassen. 2015. Effect of tannin and species variation on in vitro digestibility, gas, and methane production of tropical browse plants. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28:188-199.
  10. Guan, H., K. M. Wittenberg, K. H. Ominski, and D. O. Krause. 2006. Efficacy of ionophores in cattle diets for mitigation of enteric methane. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1896-1906.
  11. Hungate, R. E. 1969. A role tube method for cultivation of strict anaerobes. In: Methods in Microbiology (Eds. J. R. Norris and D. W. Ribbons). Academic Press Inc., NY, USA. pp. 117-132.
  12. Jayanegara, A., E. Wina, and J. Takahashi. 2014. Meta-analysis on methane mitigating properties of saponin-rich sources in the rumen: Influence of addition levels and plant sources. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1426-1435.
  13. Krause, D. O. and J. B. Russell. 1996. An rRNA approach for assessing the role of obligate amino acid-fermenting bacteria in ruminal amino acid deamination. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:815-821.
  14. Lee, S. S., J. K. Ha, and K. J. Cheng. 2000. Relative contributions of bacteria, protozoa, and fungi to in vitro degradation of orchard grass cell walls and their interactions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:3807-3813.
  15. Makkar, H. P. S. 2003. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effect of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Rumin. Res. 49:241-256.
  16. McAllister, T. A. and C. J. Newbold. 2008. Redirecting rumen fermentation to reduce methanogenesis. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 48:7-13.
  17. McSweeney, C. S., B. Palmer, D. M. McNeill, and D. O. Krause. 2001. Microbial interactions with tannins: Nutritional consequences for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 91:83-93.
  18. Moate, P. J., S. R. O. Williams, V. A. Torok, M. C. Hannah, B. E. Ribaux, M. H. Tavendale, R. J. Eckard, J. L. Jacobs, M. J. Auldist, and W. J. Wales. 2014. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97:5073-5087.
  19. Norrapoke, T., M. Wanapat, S. Wanapat, and S. Foiklang. 2014. Effect of Centella Asiatica powder (CAP) and Mangosteen peel powder (MPP) on rumen fermentation and microbial population in swamp buffaloes. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 24:435-444.
  20. Pilajun, R. and M. Wanapat. 2013. Microbial population in the rumen of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as influenced by coconut oil and mangosteen peel supplementation. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 97:439-445.
  21. Poungchompu, O., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn, S. Wanapat, and A. Cherdthong. 2009. Manipulation of ruminal fermentation and methane production by dietary saponins and tannins from mangosteen peel and soapberry fruit. Arch. Anim. Nutri. 63:389-400.
  22. Mathew, S., S. Sagatheman, J. Thomas, and G. Mathen. 1997. An HPLC method for estimation of volatile fatty acids of ruminal fluid. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 67:805-807.
  23. SAS. 1998. User's Guide: Statistics, Version 6. 12th edn. SAS. Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  24. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  25. Waghorn, G. C., M. J. Ulyatt, A. John, and M. T. Fisher. 1987. The effect of condensed tannins on the site of digestion of amino acids and other nutrients in sheep fed on Lotus corniculatus L. Br. J. Nutr. 57:115-126.
  26. Wanapat, M. 1990. Nutritional Aspects of Ruminant Production in Southeast Asia with Special Reference to Thailand. Dept. of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand. 217 p.
  27. Wanapat, M. and O. Pimpa. 1999. Effect of ruminal $NH_3$-N levels ruminal fermentation, purine derivatives, digestibility and rice straw intake in swamp buffaloes. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 12:904-907.
  28. Wanapat, M., P. Kongmun, O. Poungchompu, A. Cherdthong, P. Khejornsart, R. Pilajun, and S. Kaenpakdee. 2012. Effects of plants containing secondary compounds and plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 44:399-405.
  29. Yu, J. and M. Ahmedna. 2013. Functional components of grape pomace: Their composition, biological properties and potential applications. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 48:221-237.
  30. AOAC. 1998. Official Methods of Analysis. 2, 16th edn. AOAC, Arlington, VA, USA.

Cited by

  1. Citrus and Winery Wastes: Promising Dietary Supplements for Sustainable Ruminant Animal Nutrition, Health, Production, and Meat Quality vol.10, pp.10, 2018,
  2. Effects of replacing rice bran with tamarind seed meal in concentrate mixture diets on the changes in ruminal ecology and feed utilization of dairy steers pp.1573-7438, 2018,