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Growth, Photosynthesis and Zinc Elimination Capacity of a Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrid under Zinc Stress

고농도 아연 조건에서 수수-수단그라스 교잡종의 생장, 광합성 및 아연 제거능

  • Oh, Soonja (Agricultural Research Institute for Climate Change, RDA) ;
  • Koh, Seok Chan (Department of Biology & Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Jeju National University)
  • 오순자 (농촌진흥청 국립원예특작과학원 온난화대응농업연구소) ;
  • 고석찬 (제주대학교 생물학과.기초과학연구소)
  • Received : 2016.06.10
  • Accepted : 2016.08.12
  • Published : 2016.08.31

Abstract

Plant biomass, photosystem II (PSII) photochemical activity, photosynthetic function, and zinc (Zn) accumulation were investigated in a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor ${\times}$ S. sudanense) exposed to various Zn concentrations to determine the elimination capacity of Zn from soils. Plant growth and biomass of the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid decreased with increasing Zn concentration. Symptoms of Zn toxicity, i.e., withering and discoloration of old leaves, were found at Zn concentrations over 800 ppm. PSII photochemical activity, as indicated by the values of $F_v/F_m$ and $F_v/F_o$, decreased significantly three days after exposure to Zn concentrations of 800 ppm or more. Photosynthetic $CO_2$ fixation rate (A) was high between Zn concentrations of 100-200 ppm ($22.5{\mu}mol$ $CO_2{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$), but it declined as Zn concentration increased. At Zn concentrations of 800 and 1600 ppm, A was 14.1 and $1.8{\mu}mol$ $CO_2{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$, respectively. The patterns of stomatal conductance ($g_s$), transpiration rate (E), and water use efficiency (WUE) were all similar to that of photosynthetic $CO_2$ fixation rate, except for dark respiration ($R_d$), which showed an opposite pattern. Zn was accumulated in both above- and below-ground parts of plants, but was more in the below-ground parts. Magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) concentrations were significantly low in the leaves of plants, and symptoms of Mg or Fe deficiency, such as a decrease in the SPAD value, were found when plants were treated with Zn concentrations above 800 ppm. These results suggest that the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid is able to accumulate Zn to high level in plant body and eliminate it with its rapid growth and high biomass yield.

Keywords

Biomass;PSII photochemical activity;Photosynthetic $CO_2$ fixation rate;Zinc accumulation;Zn toxicity

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 제주녹색환경지원센터

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