The Analysis of PM10 Concentration and Emission Contribution in the Major Cities of Korea

한반도 주요 대도시의 PM10 농도 특성 및 배출량과의 상관성 분석

  • Kang, Minsung (Division of Earth Environmental System, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Yoo-Keun (Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Taehee (Division of Earth Environmental System, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kang, Yoon-Hee (The Institute of Environmental Studies, Pusan National University) ;
  • Jeong, Ju-Hee (Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Pusan National University)
  • 강민성 (부산대학교 지구환경시스템학부) ;
  • 김유근 (부산대학교 대기환경과학과) ;
  • 김태희 (부산대학교 지구환경시스템학부) ;
  • 강윤희 (부산대학교 환경연구원) ;
  • 정주희 (부산대학교 대기환경과학과)
  • Received : 2016.04.06
  • Accepted : 2016.07.14
  • Published : 2016.08.31


This study analyzes the $PM_{10}$ characteristics (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than $10{\mu}m$), concentration, and emissions in eight large South Korean cities (Seoul, Incheon, Daejeon, Daegu, Gwangju, Ulsan, Busan, Jeju). The annual median of $PM_{10}$ concentration showed a decline of $0.02{\sim}1.97{\mu}g/m^3$ in the regions, except for Incheon, which recorded an annual $0.02{\mu}g/m^3$ increase. The monthly distribution levels were high in spring, winter, fall, and the summer, but were lower in summer for all regions except for Ulsan. These differences are thought to be due to the dust in spring and the cleaning effect of precipitation in summer. The variation in concentrations during the day (diurnal variation) showed that $PM_{10}$ levels were very high during the rush hour and that this was most extreme in the cities (10.00 and 18.00-21.00). The total annual $PM_{10}$ emissions analysis suggested that there had been a general decrease, except for Jeju. On-road mobile (OM) sources, which contributed a large proportion of the particulates in most regions, decreased, but fugitive dust (FD) sources increased in the remaining regions, except for Daegu. The correlation analysis between $PM_{10}$ concentrations and emissions showed that FD could be used as a valid, positive predictor of $PM_{10}$ emissions in Seoul (74.5% (p<0.05)), Dajeon (47.2% (p<0.05)), and Busan (59.1% (p<0.01)). Furthermore, industrial combustion (IC) was also a significant predictor in Incheon (61.7% (p<0.01)), and on-road mobile (OC) sources were a valid predictor in Daegu (24.8% (p<0.05)).


$PM_{10}$;Korea major cities;CAPSS;Contribution


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. Ahn, J. W., Kim, K. H., Kim, S. C., 2005, The spatial and temporal distribution patterns of $PM_{10}$ in major cities and provinces in Korea, J. Korean Ear. Sci. Soc., 26(7), 652-660.
  2. Bae, G. N., Lee, S. B., Park, S. M., 2007, Vehicle-related fine particulate air pollution in Seoul, Korea, Asian J. Atmos. Environ., 1(1), 1-8.
  3. Bhaskar, B. V., Mehta, V. M., 2010, Atmospheric particulate pollutants and their relationship with meteorology in Ahmedabad, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 10(4), 301-315.
  4. Choi, Y. S., Yoon, J. C., Lee, J. B., Kim, Y. H., Lee, S. Y., Yun, J. S., Eom, S. W., Chae, Y. Z., 2012, Characteristics of $PM_{10}$ high concentration events in ambient air of Seoul, Report of SIHE, 48, 126-135.
  5. Chelani, A. B., 2015, Exceedance analysis of $PM_{10}$ concentration in central Indian city: Predicting gap between two exceedances, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 15(5), 2158-2167.
  6. Daniels, M. J., Dominici, F., Zeger, S. L., Samet, J. M., 2004, The national morbidity, mortality, and air pollution study. Part III: $PM_{10}$ concentration-response curves and thresholds for the 20 largest US cities, Res. Rep. (Health Eff. Inst.), (94 Pt 3), 1-21.
  7. Deshmukh, D. K., Deb, M. K., Hopke, P. K., Tsai, Y. I., 2012, Seasonal characteristics of water-soluble dicarboxylates associated with $PM_{10}$ in the urban atmosphere of Durg City, India, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 12, 683-696.
  8. Do, H. S., Choi, S. J., Park, M. S., Lim, J. K., 2014, Distribution characteristics of the concentration of ambient $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ in Daegu Area, J. Kor. Soc. Environ. Eng., 36(1), 20-28.
  9. Dockery, D. W., 2001, Epidemiologic evidence of cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution, Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(4), 483.
  10. Effect of the Rainfall during Typhoon Periods on the Variation of Concentration of Ambient Air pollutants ($PM_{10},\;NO_2,\;CO,\;SO_2$) in the Korean Peninsula, 2014, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 20(2), 128-138.
  11. Ghim, Y. S., Chang, Y. S., Jung, K., 2015, Temporal and spatial variations in fine and coarse particles in Seoul, Korea, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 15(3), 842-852.
  12. Goudarzi, G., Geravandi, S., Saeidimehr, S., Mohammadi, M. J., Vosoughi Niri, M., Salmanzadeh, S., Ahmadi Angali, K., Neisi, A. K., Babaei, A. A., 2015, Estimation of health effects for $PM_{10}$ exposure using of Air Q model in Ahvaz City during 2009, Iranian Journal of Health and Environment, 8(1), 117-126.
  13. Hong, N. G., Woo, S. S., Huh, I. R., Choi, S. B., Park, K. Y., Kim, T. W., Kim, Y. K., Park, Y. J., Bang, M. R., Choi, J. Y., Kim, Y. J., 2011, The characteristics of $PM_{10}$ concentration in GangWon-do 2009, Rep. Inst. Health & Environ., 22, 124-131.
  14. Jeon, B. I., Hwang, Y. S., Lee, H. W., Yang, A. R., Kim, H. J., Seol, J. H., Kang, Y. J., Kim, T. H., Jang, H. S., 2005, Characteristics of metallic elements concentration of fine particles($PM_{10},\;PM_{2.5}$) at Busan in 2004, J. Korean Ear. Sci. Soc., 26(6), 573-283.
  15. Jin, Y. H., Koo, H. J., Kim, B. M., Kim, Y. P., Park, S. U., 2003, Variations of the $PM_{10}$ concentrations observed in eleven cities in South Korea between 1995 and 2000, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 19(2), 231-245.
  16. Jeon, B. I., 2010, Characteristics of pacio-temporal variation for $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ concentation in Busan, Journal of Environmental Science International, 19(8), 1013-1023.
  17. Jung, W. S., Lee, B. R., Park, J. K., Do, W. G., 2013, Analysis on high concentration air pollution cases in Gimhae region using the WRF numerical model, Journal of Environmental Science International, 22(8), 1029-1041.
  18. Jeong, J. C., 2014, A spatial distribution analysis and time series change of $PM_{10}$ in Seoul City, Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies, 17(1), 61-69.
  19. Kwon, O. Y., An, Y. S., 2006, Temporal and spatial distributions of $PM_{10},\;NO_x\;and\;O_3$ around the road, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 22(4), 440-450.
  20. Kim, Y. P., 2010, Analysis of the trend of atmospheric $PM_{10}$ concentration over the Seoul metropolitan area between 1999 and 2008, J. Environ. Impact Assessment, 19(1), 59-74.
  21. Kim, Y. P., Yeo, M. J., 2013, The trend of the concentrations of the criteria pollutants over Seoul, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 29(4), 369-377.
  22. Kim, K. J., Lee, S. H., Hyeon, D. R., Ko, H. J., Kim, W. H., Kang, C. H., 2014, Composition comparison of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ fine particulate matter for Asian dust and haze events of 2010-2011 at Gosan site in Jeju Island, Analytical Science & Technology, 27(1), 1-10.
  23. NIER, 2006, Study on air pollution comprehensive assessment techniques developed, Report No. 11-1480523-00198-10.
  24. NIER, 2011, 2010 The annual report for operating result of air pollution intensive monitoring stations.
  25. Park, E. J., Kang, M. S., You, D. E., Kim, D. S., Yu, S. D., Chung, K. H., Park, K. S., 2005, Health risk assessment of heavy metals in fine particles collected in Seoul metropolitan area, J. Environ. Toxicol., 20(2), 179-186.
  26. Park, E. J., Kim, D. S., Park, K. S., 2008, Monitoring of ambient particles and heavy metals in a residential area of Seoul, Korea, Environ. Monit. Assess., 137(1), 441-449.
  27. Park, G. H., Cho, J. G., Ryu, B. S., 2010, Evaluation of pollution characteristics and chemical compostion of $PM_{2.5}$ in ambient air in Busan(II), The Annual Report of Busan Metropolitan city Institute of Health & Environment, 20(1), 154-167.
  28. Schwartz, J., 1994, What are people dying of on high air pollution days?. Environmental Research, 64(1), 26-35.
  29. Song, H. D., Lee, H. C., Kwon, C. K., Kim, R. H., Kim, S. K., Lee, J. B., 2012, Analysis of impact factors on the variation of $PM_{10}$ concentration in Seoul, Korea-Focus on $PM_{10}$ concentration measured in 2003, 2004. Asian J. Atmos. Environ., 6(1), 1-13.
  30. Shin, H. J., Lim, Y. J., Kim, J. H., Jung, H. J., Park, S. M., Park, J. S., Song, I. H., Seo, S. J., Hong, Y. D., Han, J. S., 2014, The characteristics of long term high PM episode occurred in Feb. 2014, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 14(3), 223-232.
  31. Wang, Y. Q., Zhang, X. Y., Gong, S. L., Zhou, C. H., Hu, X. Q., Liu, H. L., Niu, T., Yang, Y. Q., 2008, Surface observation of sand and dust storm in East Asia and its application in CUACE/Dust, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8(3), 545-553.
  32. Yang, J. H., Kim, S. R., Jung, J. H., Han, Y. J., 2011, Long-term trend of atmospheric concentrations of fine particles in Chuncheon, Korea, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 27(5), 494-503.
  33. Yoo, J. M., Lee, Y. R., Kim, D., Jeong, M. J., Stockwell, W. R., Kundu, P. K., Oh, S. M., Shin, D. B., Lee, S. J., 2014, New indices for wet scavenging of air pollutants ($O_3,\;CO,\;NO_2,\;SO_2,\;and\;PM_{10}$) by summertime rain, Atmos. Environ., 82, 226-237.
  34. NIER, 2014, Annual report of air quality in Korea 2013, Report No. 11-1480523-00198-10.