Synthesis and Characterization of Pyridinium Dinitramide Salt

피리디니움 디나이트라아마이드염의 합성과 특성연구

  • Kim, Wooram (Department of Applied Environmental Science, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Kwon, Younja (Department of Applied Environmental Science, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Jo, Youngmin (Department of Applied Environmental Science, Kyung Hee University)
  • 김우람 (경희대학교 환경응용과학과) ;
  • 권윤자 (경희대학교 환경응용과학과) ;
  • 조영민 (경희대학교 환경응용과학과)
  • Received : 2016.05.19
  • Accepted : 2016.06.23
  • Published : 2016.08.10


A new solid oxidizer, pyridinium dinitramide (Py-DN) is a low toxic energetic material which can be utilized as a HPGP (high performance green propellant). In this work, Py-DN was synthesized using various starting materials including potassium sulfamate, pyridine hydrochloride, strong nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Physical and chemical properties of the Py-DN were characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR and a thermal analyzer and their properties were compared to those of previously prepared salts including ammonium dinitramide[ADN, $NH_4N(NO_2)_2$] and guanidine dinitramide[GDN, $NH_2C(NH_2)NH_2N(NO_2)_2$] in our lab. Endothermic and exothermic decomposition temperatures of Py-DN were $77.4^{\circ}C$ and $144.7^{\circ}C$, respectively. The combustion caloric value was 1739 J/g, which is thermally more sensitive than that of conventional dinitramides. It may enable to lower the decomposition temperature, which can reduce preheating temperature required for satellite thruster applications.


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. A. S. Gohardani, J. Stanojev, A. Demairee, K. Anflo, M. Persson, N. Wingborg, and C. Nilsson, Green space propulsion: Opportunities and prospects, Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 71, 128-149 (2014).
  2. K. M. abhay, Recent advances in development of eco-friendly solid composite propellants for rocket propulsion, Res. J. Chem. Environ., 14(3), 94-103 (2010).
  3. R. Martin, Green propellants, PhD Dissertation, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden (2010).
  4. W. R. Kim, Y. J. Kwon, Y. M. Jo, and S. T. Jung, Synthesis of organic salt oxidizer, guanidine dinitramide, J. Korean Oil Chem. Soc., 31(3), 345-351 (2014).
  5. D. Amariei, L. Courtheoux, S. Rossignol, and Y. Batonneau, Influence of the fuel on the thermal and catalytic decompositions of ionic liquid monopropellants, 41th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, July 10-13, Tucson USA (2005).
  6. X. K. Yang, K. Z. Xu, F. Q. Zhao, X. Yang, H. Wang, and J. R. Song, Thermal behavior, specific heat capacity and adiabatic time-to-explosion of GDN, Chem. Res. Chinese Universites, 25(1), 76-80 (2009).
  7. O. A. Luk'yanov, V. P. Gorelik, and V. A. Tartakovsky, Dinitramide and its salts, Russ. Chem. Bull., 44, 108-112 (1995).
  8. A. Langlet, H. Ostmark, and N. Wingborg, Method of preparing dinitramidic acid and salts thereof, US Patent 5,976,483 (1999).
  9. C. Vorde and H. Skifs, Method of producing salts of dinitramidic acid, US Patent 7,981,393 B2 (2011).
  10. W. R. Kim, Y. J. Kwon, and Y. M. Jo, Enhancement of yield and purity of ADN by separation technic, Proceedings of Applied Chemistry for Engineering. April 30-May 2, Jeju, Korea (2014).
  11. J. Oliveria, M. Nagamachi, M. Diniz, E. Mattos, and R. Dutra, Assessment the synthesis routes conditions for obtaining ammonium dinitramide by the FT-IR, J. Aerosp. Technol. Manag., 3(3), 269-278 (2011).
  12. M. Katcka and T. Urbanski, Infrared absorption spectra of quaternary salts of pyridine, Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Chem., 12(9), 615-621 (1964).
  13. T. S. Jo, Synthesis and characterizations of pyridinium salts including poly(pyridinium salt)s and their applications, PhD Dissertation, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA (2012).
  14. S. Lobbeche, T. Keicher, H. Krause, and A. Pfeil, The new energetic material ammonium dinitramide and its thermal decomposition, Solid State Ionics, 101, 945-951 (1997).
  15. R. Yana, P. Thakre, and V. Yang, Thermal decomposition and combustion of ammonium dinitramide, Combust. Explos. Shock Waves, 41(6), 657-679 (2005).
  16. C. K. Kim, J. C. Yoo, and B. S. Min, Impact sensitivity of HTPE & HTPB propellants using friability test, J. Korean Soc. Propul. Eng., 15(1), 29-34 (2011).
  17. J. N. Kim, M. J. Kim, and B. S. Min, Synthesis and crystallization of hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF) as eco-friendly oxidizer, J. Korean Soc. Propul. Eng., 19(4), 69-76 (2015).

Cited by

  1. 5 N Scale Preliminary Thruster Test with an ADN-based Monopropellant vol.22, pp.2, 2018,