Effect of supplementation of feed with Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls

  • Shah, Syed Mazhar Hussain (Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad) ;
  • Ali, Shujait (Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad) ;
  • Zubair, Muhammad (Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad) ;
  • Jamil, Huma (Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad) ;
  • Ahmad, Nazir (Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad)
  • Received : 2016.03.04
  • Accepted : 2016.05.31
  • Published : 2016.07.31


Background: The current study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls. Methods: In this study, 12 adult healthy bulls kept at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad district Sahiwal, were used. These bulls were divided into three equal groups, A, B and C. Group A was kept as control, while in groups B and C supplementation of feed was provided by using flaxseed oil @125 ml/day and 250 ml/day,respectively for 12 weeks. Two ejaculates per animal were collected at 0 day then 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th week of treatment. In this way a total 216 samples were taken, and each semen sample was evaluated for color, volume, mass activity, percent motility, sperm cell concentration per ml, percentage of live sperm, and plasma membrane integrity. Libido of bulls was also evaluated before every collection. Results: Analysis of data revealed that these parameters were significantly (P < 0.01) increased in flax oil treated animals as compared to control. Conclusion: It was concluded from the present study that flax seed oil has beneficial effects on reproductive health of buffalo bull.


Semen;Flax seed and breeding bulls


  1. Adeel M, Ijaz A, Aleem M, Rehman H, Yousaf MS, Jabbar MA. Improvement of liquid and frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls(Bubalusbubalis) through supplementation of fat. Theriogenology. 2009;71:1220-5.
  2. Adlercreutz H, Hockerstedt K, Bannwart C, Hamalainen E, Fotsis T, Bloigu S. Association between dietary fiber, urinary excretion of lignans and isoflavonic phytoestrogens and plasma non-protein bound sex hormone in relation to breast cancer. In: Bresciani F, King RJB, Lippman ME, Raynaud JP, editors. Progress in cancer research and therapy: hormones and cancer. 3rd ed. New York: Raven; 1988. p. 412.
  3. Aitken RJ. Development of in vitro tests of human sperm function: a diagnostic tool and model system for toxicological analyses. Toxicol In Vitro. 1990;4:560-9.
  4. Al-Daraji HJ, Al-Mashadani HA, Al-Hayani WK, Al-hassani AS, Mirza HA. Effect of dietary supplementation with different oils on productive and reproductive performance of quail. Inter J Poult Sci. 2010;9:656.
  5. Baiomy AA, Mottelib AA. Effect of dietary flaxseed oil supplementation on reproductive performance of rams during summer. Anim Hyg Sust Livest Prod. 2009;3:1263-5.
  6. Berndtson WE. Comparative reliability and sensitivity of different methods for assessing treatment effects on sperm production. Anim Reprod Sci. 2008;105:5-22.
  7. Briskie JV. Spatiotemporal patters of sperm storage and last-male sperm precedence birds. Funct Ecol. 1996;10:375-83.
  8. Conquer JA, Martin JB, Tummon I, Watson L, Tekpetey F. Effect of DHA supplementation on DHA status and sperm motility in asthenozoospermic males. Lipids. 2000;35:149-54.
  9. Dolatpanah MB, Towhidi A, Farshad A, Rashidi A, Rezayazdi K. Effect of fish oil on semenquality of goats. Asian-Austr J AnimSci. 2008;21:29-34.
  10. Esmaeili V, Shahverdi AH, Alizadeh AR, Alipour H, Chehrazi M. Saturated, omega-6 and omega-3 dietary fatty acid effects on the characteristics of fresh, frozen- thawed semen and blood parameters in rams. Andrologia. 2012;46:42-9.
  11. Estienne MJ, Harper AF, Crawford RJ. Dietary supplementation with a source of omega-3 fatty acids increases sperm number and the duration of ejaculation in boars. Theriogenology. 2008;70:70-6.
  12. Fair S, Doyle DN, Diskin MG, Hennessy AA, Kenny DA. The effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation of rams on semen quality and subsequent quality of liquid stored semen. Theriogenology. 2014;81:210-9.
  13. Gholami H, Chamani M, Towhidi A, Fazeli MH. Effect of feeding a docosahexaenoic acid-enriched nutriceutical on the quality of fresh and frozen-thawed semen in Holstein bulls. Theriogenology. 2010;74:1548-58.
  14. Gliozzi TM, Zaniboni L, Maldjian A, Luzi F, Maertens L, Cerolini S. Quality and lipid composition of spermatozoa in rabbits fed DHA and vitamin E rich diets. Theriogenology. 2009;71:910-9.
  15. Guzick DS, Overstreet JW, Factor-Litvak P, Brazil CK, Nakajima ST, Coutifaris C, Carson C, Cisneros SA, Steinkampf P, Hill MP, Xu JA, Vogel D. National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network. Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1388-93.
  16. Harris MA, Baumgard LH, Arns MJ, Webel SK. Stallion spermatozoa membrane phospholipids dynamics following dietary n-3 supplementation. Anim Reprod Sci. 2005;89:234-7.
  17. Henney SR, Killian GJ, Deaver DR. Libido, hormone concentrations in blood plasma and semen characteristics in Holstein bulls. J Anim Sci. 1990;68:2784-92.
  18. Jafaroghli M, Benemarb HA, Zamiric MJ, Khalilid B, Farshade A, Shadparvar AA. Effects of dietary n - 3 fatty acids and vitamin C on semencharacteristics, lipid composition of sperm and bloodmetabolites in fat-tailed Moghani rams. Anim Reprod Sci. 2014;147:17-24.
  19. Jeyendran RS, Van darVen HH, Pelaez MP, Carbo BG, Zaneveld LJD. Development of an assay to access the functional integrity of human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics. J Reprod Fert. 1984;70:219-28.
  20. Mitre R, Cheminade C, Allaume P, Legrand P, Legrand AB. Oral intake of shark liver oil modifies lipid composition and improves motility and velocity of boar sperm. Theriogenology. 2004;62:1557-66.
  21. Mourvaki E, Cardinali R, Dal BA, Corazzi L, Castellini C. Effects of flaxseed dietary supplementation on sperm quality and on lipid composition of sperm subfractions and prostatic granules in rabbit. Theriogenology. 2009;73:629-37.
  22. Needleman P, Turk J, Kakshik BA, Morriso AR, Lefkowith JB. Arachidonic acid metabolism. Ann Rev Biochem. 1986;55:69-102.
  23. Neuringer M, Anderson GJ, Conner WE. The essentiality of n-3fatty acids for the development and function of the retina and brain. Annu Rev Nutr. 1988;8:517-41.
  24. Poulos A, Sharp P, Johnson D, White I, Fellenberg A. The occurrence of polyenoic fatty acids with greater than 22 carbon atoms in mammalian spermatozoa. Biochem J. 1986;240:891-5.
  25. Robinson JJ, Ashworth CJ, Rooke JA, Mitchell LM, McEvoy TG. Nutrition and fertility in ruminant livestock. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 2006;126:259-76.
  26. Rooke JA, Shao CC, Speake BK. Effects of tuna oil on lipid composition of pig spermatozoa and in vitro characteristics of semen. Reproduction. 2001; 121:315-22.
  27. Salisbury GW, Van Demark NL, Lodge JR. Physiology of reproduction and artificial insemination of cattle. Shadara: C.B.S. Publishers and Distributers; 1985.
  28. Samadian F, Towhidi A, Rezayazdi K, Bahreini M. Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on characteristics and lipid composition of ovine sperm. Animal. 2010;4(12):2017-22.
  29. Steven PB, Varnera DD, Loveb CC, Blancharda TL, Dayc BC, Wilson ME. Effect of feeding a DHA-enriched nutriceutical on the quality of fresh, cooled and frozen stallion semen. Theriogenology. 2005;63:1519-27.
  30. Towhidi A, Samadian F, Rezayazdi K, Rostami F, Ghaziani F. Feeding n-3 fatty acid source improves semen quality by increasing n3/n6 fatty acids ratio in sheep. Chicago: 10th World Conference on Animal Production; 2008. p. 65.
  31. Wathes DC, Abayasekara DR, Aitken RJ. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in male and female reproduction. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:190-201.
  32. Yan L, Bai XL, Fang ZF, Che LQ, Xu SY, Wu D. Effect of different dietary omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratios on reproduction in male rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:33.