DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

In-field evaluation of clinoptilolite feeding efficacy on the reduction of milk aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cattle

  • Katsoulos, Panagiotis D. (Clinic of Farm Animals, School of Veterinary Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) ;
  • Karatzia, Maria A. (Clinic of Farm Animals, School of Veterinary Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) ;
  • Boscos, Constantinos (Clinic of Farm Animals, School of Veterinary Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) ;
  • Wolf, Petra (Institute for Nutrition Physiology and Animal Nutrition, University of Rostock) ;
  • Karatzias, Harilaos (Clinic of Farm Animals, School of Veterinary Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki)
  • Received : 2016.02.12
  • Accepted : 2016.05.17
  • Published : 2016.07.31

Abstract

Background: Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite with high adsorption capacity for polar mycotoxins such as aflatoxins. The efficacy of clinoptilolite in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxicosis has been proven in monogastric animals, but there is no such evidence for ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, whether the dietary administration of clinoptilolite in dairy cows could reduce the concentration of aflatoxin M1 ($AFM_1$) in bulk-tank milk, in farms with higher than or close to $0.05{\mu}g/kg$ of milk (European maximum allowed residual level). An objective of the present study was also to investigate the effect of particle size of clinoptilolite on aflatoxin binding. Methods: Fifteen commercial Greek dairy herds with AFM1 concentrations in bulk tank milk ${\geq}0.05{\mu}g/kg$ were selected. Bulk tank milk AFM1 was determined prior to the onset and on day 7 of the experiment. Clinoptilolite was added in the total mixed rations of all farms at the rate of 200 g per animal per day, throughout this period. Two different particle sizes of clinoptilolite were used; less than 0.15 mm in 9 farms (LC group) and less than 0.8 mm in 6 farms (HC group). Results: Clinoptilolite administration significantly reduced $AFM_1$ concentrations in milk in all farms tested at an average rate of 56.2 % (SD: 15.11). The mean milk $AFM_1$ concentration recorded on Day 7 was significantly (P < 0.001) lower compared to that of Day 0 ($0.036{\pm}0.0061$ vs. $0.078{\pm}0.0074{\mu}g/kg$). In LC group farms the reduction of milk $AFM_1$ concentration was significantly higher than HC group farms ($0.046{\pm}0.0074$ vs. $0.036{\pm}0.0061{\mu}g/kg$, P = 0.002). As indicated by the Pearson correlation, there was a significant and strong linear correlation among the milk $AFM_1$ concentrations on Days 0 and 7 (R = 0.95, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Dietary administration of clinoptilolite, especially of smallest particle size, at the rate of 200 g per cow per day can effectively reduce milk $AFM_1$ concentration in dairy cattle and can be used as a preventive measure for the amelioration of the risks associated with the presence of aflatoxins in the milk of dairy cows.

References

  1. Creppy EE. Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Lett. 2002;127:19-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(01)00479-9
  2. Binder EM, Tan LM, Chin LJ, Handl J, Richard J. Worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in commodities, feeds and feed ingredients. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2007;137:265-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.06.005
  3. Kuilman MEM, Maas RFM, Judah DJ, Fink-Gremmels J. Bovine hepatic metabolism of aflatoxin B1. J Agric Food Chem. 1998;46:2707-13. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980062x
  4. Kuilman MEM, Maas RFM, Fink-Gremmels J. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in bovine hepatocytes. Toxicol In Vitro. 2000;14:321-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-2333(00)00025-4
  5. Kensler TW, Roebuck BD, Wogan GN, Groopman JD. Aflatoxin: A 50-year odyssey of mechanistic and translational toxicology. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120:S28-48. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfq283
  6. van Egmond HP. Aflatoxin M1: Occurrence, Toxicity, Regulation. In: van Egmond HP, editor. Mycotoxins in Dairy Products. London: Elsevier Applied Science; 1989. p. 11-55.
  7. Prandini A, Tansini G, Sigolo S, Filippi L, Laporta M, Piva G. On the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;47:984-91.
  8. Veldman A, Meijs JAC, Borggreve J,Heeres-van der Tol JJ. Carry-over of aflatoxin from cows' food to milk. Anim Prod. 199;255:163-8. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100037417
  9. Diaz DE, Hagler JWM, Blackwelder JT, Eve JA, Hopkins BA, Anderson KL, Jones FT, Whitlow LW. Aflatoxin binders II: Reduction of aflatoxin M1 in milk by sequestering agents of cows consuming aflatoxin in feed. Mycopathologia. 2004;157:233-41. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:MYCO.0000020587.93872.59
  10. Masoero F, Gallo A, Moschini M, Piva G, Diaz D. Carry-over of aflatoxin from feed to milk in dairy cows with low or high somatic cell counts. Animal. 2007;1:1344-50.
  11. Britzi M, Friedman S, Miron J, Solomon R, Cuneah O, Shimshoni JA, Soback S, Ashkenazi R, Armer S, Shlosberg A. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin M1 in high yielding Israeli cows in mid- and late-lactation. Toxins. 2013;5:173-83. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins5010173
  12. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the Commission related to aflatoxin B1 as undesirable substance in animal feed. EFSA J. 2004;39:1-27.
  13. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Aflatoxins. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 62. Lyon: IARC Press; 2002.
  14. European Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 651/2013 of 9 July 2013 concerning the authorisation of clinoptilolite of sedimentary origin as a feed additive for all animal species and amending Regulation (EC) No 1810/2005. Off J Eur Union. 10/7/2013;L 189:1-3.
  15. Dacovic A, Tomacevic-Canovic M, Dondur V, Vujakovic A, Radosevic P. Kinetics of aflatoxin B1 and G2 adsorption on Ca-clinoptilolite. J Serb Chem Soc. 2000;65:715-23. https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC0010715D
  16. Tomacevic-Canovic M, Dacovic A, Markovic V, Stojcic D. The effect of exchangeable cations in clinoptilolite and montmorillonite on the adsorption of aflatoxin B1. J Serb Chem Soc. 2001;66:555-61.
  17. Spotti M, Fracchiolla ML, Arioli F, Caloni F, Pompa G. Aflatoxin B1 binding to sorbents in bovine ruminal fluid. Vet Res Commun. 2005;29:507-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-005-1867-2
  18. Schell TC, Lindemann MD, Kornegay ET, Blodgett DJ, Doer JA. Effectiveness of different types of clay for reducing the detrimental effects of aflatoxincontaminated diets on performance and serum profiles of weanling pigs. J Anim Sci. 1993;71:1226-31. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.7151226x
  19. Oguz H, Kececi T, Birdane YO, Onder F, Kurtoglu V. Effect of clinoptilolite on serum biochemical and haematological characters of broiler chickens during experimental aflatoxicosis. Res Vet Sci. 2000;69:89-93. https://doi.org/10.1053/rvsc.2000.0395
  20. Oguz H, Kurtoglu V, Coskun B. Preventive efficacy of clinoptilolite in broilers during chronic aflatoxin (50 and 100 ppb) exposure. Res Vet Sci. 2000;69:197-201. https://doi.org/10.1053/rvsc.2000.0417
  21. Ortatatli M, Oguz H. Ameliorative effects of dietary clinoptilolite on pathological changes in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis. Res Vet Sci. 2001;71:59-66. https://doi.org/10.1053/rvsc.2001.0487
  22. Safameher A. Effects of Clinoptilolite on Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Hepatic Lesions in Broiler Chickens during Aflatoxosis. J Anim Vet Adv. 2008;7:381-8.
  23. Maslic-Strizak D, Spalevic L, Resanovic R. Testing the possibility of zeolite application on poultry exposed to the G2 aflatoxin effect. Maced J Anim Sci. 2013;3:181-8.
  24. Harvey RB, Phillips TD, Ellis JA, Kubena LF, Huff WE, Petersen HD. Effects on aflatoxin M1 residues in milk by addition of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to aflatoxin-contaminated diets of dairy cows. Am J Vet Res. 1991;52:1556-9.
  25. Smith EE, Phillips TD, Ellis JA, Harvey RB, Kubena LF, Thompson J, Newton G. Dietary hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate reduction of aflatoxin M1 residue in dairy goat milk and effects on milk production and components. J Anim Sci. 1994;72:677-82. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.723677x
  26. Kutz RE, Sampson JD, Pompeu LB, Ledoux DR, Spain JN, Vazquez-Anon M, Rottinghaus GE. Efficacy of Solis, NovasilPlus, and MTB-100 to reduce aflatoxin M1 levels in milk of early to mid lactation dairy cows fed aflatoxin B1. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:3959-63. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2031
  27. Queiroz OCM, Han JH, Staples CR, Adesogan AT. Effect of adding a mycotoxin-sequestering agent on milk aflatoxin M1 concentration and the performance and immune response of dairy cattle fed an aflatoxin B1- contaminated diet. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:5901-8. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-5287
  28. Katsoulos PD, Karatzia MA, Karatzias H. The Use of Clinoptilolite as Feed Additive for the Prevention and Treatment of Certain Diseases in Cattle. In: Lieu G, editor. Cattle: Domestication, Diseases and the Environment. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc; 2013. p. 115-26.
  29. Papaioannou D, Katsoulos PD, Panousis N, Karatzias H. The role of natural and synthetic zeolites as feed additives on the prevention and/or the treatment of certain farm animal diseases: a review. Micropor Mesopor Mat. 2005;84:161-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2005.05.030
  30. Sarr AB. Effects of phyllosilicate clay on the metabolic profile of aflatoxin B1 in Fischer-344 rats. Toxicol Lett. 1995;75:145-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4274(94)03179-B