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Review of the Genus Pimpla (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Korea

  • Received : 2016.01.06
  • Accepted : 2016.05.05
  • Published : 2016.07.31

Abstract

We reviewed Korean species of the genus Pimpla and confirmed 12 species. In this genus, 36 species have been reported from the Eastern Palaearctic region, eight species were from Korea. Also, we report four species, Pimpla albociliata Kasparyan, 1974, Pimpla femorella Kasparyan, 1974, Pimpla kaszabi (Momoi, 1973) and Pimpla melanacrias Perkins, 1941, which were newly recorded for the first time from Korea. Among them, Pimpla nipponica Uchida, 1928 is recorded from United States and the Nearctic region for the first time. A key to Korean species of the genus Pimpla, diagnoses and illustrations of adult external structures are provided.

Keywords

INTRODUCTION

The genus Pimpla is a relatively large ichneumonoid genus that includes 203 species worldwide. Members of this genus include 36 species in the Eastern Palaearctic region. A total of 25 species have been recorded from China and Russia, 16 species have been recorded from Japan (Yu et al., 2012). A taxonomic study of Korean Pimpla was initiated by Uchida (1928), who reported four species, P. alboannulata Uchida, P. disparis Viereck, P. luctuosa Smith and P. pluto Ashmead. Uchida (1955) recorded P. aethiops Curtis, while Kim (1955) recorded two species, P. rufipes (Miller) and P. turionellae (Linnaeus), and Townes et al. (1965) recorded P. nipponica Uchida from Korea. For the next 50 years, the Korean fauna received very little attention, and the existing Korean genus Pimpla only includes eight species. Most species of this genus are endoparasitoids of Lepidoptera larvae or pupae (Momoi, 1977), but some are parasites of larvae or pupae of Coleoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. Oviposition occurs in the larvae, prepupae and pupae of the host (Iwata, 1966). Parasitoids are important to the control of reproduction of injurious insects. There are many examples of insect pest outbreaks that have been suppressed by ichneumonid species, suggesting that they can be used to control pests (Bartlett et al., 1978). For example, Pimpla is a typical natural enemy of Lymantria dispar, which is in Lymantriinae, a subfamily of Erebidae (Burgess, 1924). Furthermore, P. disparis Viereck is known as a typical natural enemy of Ivela auripes (Butler), which is also in Erebidae (Choi et al., 2015). In this study, we report four unrecorded species, P. albociliata Kasparyan, P. femorella Kasparyan, P. kaszabi (Momoi), and P. melanacrias Perkins. We also provide diagnoses, illustrations and a key to the Korean Pimpla species.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials used in this study were collected by insect net sweeping and Malaise traps, after which they were deposited in the animal systematic laboratory of Yeungnam University (YNU, Gyeongsan, Korea). Specimens were examined using an AxioCam MRc5 camera attached to a stereo microscope (Zeiss Stereo Discovery, V20; Carl Zeiss, Göttingen, Germany). Illustrations were acquired using the AxioVision SE64 software (Carl Zeiss) and optimized with a Delta imaging system (i-solution; IMT i-Solution Inc., Vancouver, Canada). The morphological terminology mostly follows that of Townes (1969).

The abbreviations used in this study are as follows: TS, type species; TD, type depository; HU, Hokkaido University, Faculty of Agriculture, Entomological Institute, Sapporo, Japan; IZU, Instytut Zoologiczny Uniwersytetu, Sienkiewicza 21, Wroclaw, Poland (Gravenhorst collection); LS, Linnaean Society, Burlington House, Picadilly, London, England, United Kingdom; NHM, The Natural History Museum, Department of Entomology, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, United Kingdom; NM, Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen der Stadt Krefeld, Brempter Hof, D-47829 Krefeld-Uerdingen, Germany; NMHS, Naturhistorisches Museum, Heidecksburg, Schlossbezirk 1, D-07407 Rudolstadt, Germany (O. Schmiedeknecht collection); NMV, National Museum of Victoria, Russel St., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; USNM, United States National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C., 20560, USA; UU, Uppsala Universitet, Zoologiska Institutionen, Entomologiska Avdelningen, Villavägen 9, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden (Thunberg collection); UZM, Universitets Zoologiske Museum, Universitetsparken 15, Copenhagen, Denmark; TMA, Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum Allattara, Barossa-Utea 13, Budapest H-1088, Hungary; ZI, Zoologiska Institutionen, Helgonavägen 3, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden; ZM, Zoologisches Museum (Museum für Naturkunde), Humboldt Universität, Invalidenstrasse 43, D-101115 Berlin, Germany; GW, Gangwon-do; GG, Gyeonggi-do; CB, Chungcheongbuk-do; CN, Chungcheongnam-do; GB, Gyeongsangbuk-do; GN, Gyeongsangnam-do; JB, Jeollabuk-do; JN, Jeollanam-do; JJ, Jeju-do.

 

SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNTS

Closterocerus Hartig, 1847: 15-19. TS: Closterocerus sericeus Hartig.

Dolichomitus Smith, 1877: 411. TS: Dolichomitus longicauda Smith.

Coccygomimus Saussure, 1892: 1-590. TS: Coccygomimus madecassus Saussure.

Habropimpla Cameron, 1900: 96. TS: Habropimpla bilineata Cameron.

Lissotheronia Cameron, 1905: 139. TS: Lissotheronia flavipes Cameron.

Phytodiaetoides Morley, 1913: 221. TS: Phytodiaetoides megaera Morley.

Diclosterocerus Viereck, 1914: 45. TS: Closterocerus sericeus Hartig.

Pimplidea Viereck, 1914: 117. TS: Pimpla pedalis Cresson.

Coelopimpla Brèthes, 1916: 402. TS: Coelopimpla amadeoi Brèthes.

Dihyboplax Enderlein, 1919: 148. TS: Dihyboplax flavipennis Enderlein.

Liotheronia Enderlein, 1919: 147. TS: Liotheronia kriegeri Enderlein.

Exeristoidea Viereck, 1924: 202. TS: Ichneumon watsoni Viereck.

Neogabunia Brèthes, 1927: 322. TS: Neogabunia paulistana Brèthes.

Opodactyla Seyrig, 1932: 60. TS: Pimpla waterloti Seyrig.

Oxypimpla Noskiewicz & Chudoba, 1951: 42, 56. TS: Ichneumon turionellae Linnaeus.

Jamaicapimpla Mason, 1975: 225. TS: Ephialtes nigroaeneus Cushman.

Diagnosis. Clypeus separated from face by suture, with strong transverse basal ridge and flattened apical area. Fore wing with areolet closed and 2-RS longer than sections of M between 2-RS and 2m-cu. 1st metasomal tergite usually stout, with glymma and spiracle before middle. At least, ovipositor as long as hind tibia, frequently shorter, without dorsal subapical notch.

Key to species of the genus Pimpla from Korea (modified from Kasparyan and Khalaim, 2007)

1*Pimpla albociliata Kasparyan, 1974 (Fig. 1)

Material examined. Korea: GB: 1♂, Gyeongsan-si, Daedong, Yeungnam Univ., 26 Jun 1996, Kwon OS.

Diagnosis. Fore leg reddish brown except basal area of coxa black; apical area of coxa with whitish mark. Hind trochanter, hind trochantellus, basal and mid area of hind femur, entire apical spur of hind tibia and basal half area of 1st hind tarsomere reddish brown; hind tibia with whitish yellow median band. Pronotum entirely polished, sparsely punctate, with sparse hairs; median apical area of pronotum smooth; lower apical area of pronotum with transverse wrinkle; epomia entirely indistinct (Fig. 1B). Hind wing without basal hamulus with eight distal hamuli.

Fig. 1.A-E, Pimpla albociliata Kasparyan, 1974. A, Habitus of male in lateral view; B, Pronotum of male in lateral view; C, Mesopleuron of male in lateral view; D, Sculletum to propodeum of male in dorsal view; E, 2nd-3rd epipleuron of male in ventral view (area indicated by triangle shaped mark). Scale bars: A, B=1 mm, C-E=0.2 mm.

Distribution. Korea (new record), China, Russia.

Region. Eastern Palaearctic.

Host. Unknown.

1*Pimpla femorella Kasparyan, 1974 (Fig. 2)

Material examined. Korea: GW: 1♀, Inje-gun, Girin-myeon, Bangdong-ri, Mt. Bangtaesan, Daegol, 15 Aug 1995, Ryu SM; 1♀, Inje-gun, Sangnam-myeon, Misan-ri, Mt. Bangdaesan, Hannidong, 24 Jun 1996, Lee JW; 1♀, Taebaek-si, Cheolam1-dong, 15 May 1992, Choi SJ; 1♀, Wonju-si, Panbu-myeon, Mt. Baekunsan, 37°16′22.87″N, 127°55′58.65″E, 19 Jun-5 Jul 2011, Lee JW; CB: 1♀, Danyang-gun, Danyang-eup, Cheondong-ri, Mt. Sobaeksan, Cheondong, 13 May 1994, Yeo HD; 1♀, Danyang-gun, Gagok-myeon, Eoeuigok-ri, Mt. Sobaeksan, Birobong, 12 May 1994, Lee HD; 1♀, Danyang-gun, Gagok-myeon, Mt. Sobaeksan, 30 Jul 1988, Lee JW; GB: 1♂, Gunwi-gun, Bugye-eup, Dongsan-ri, San 75, 36°01′29.04″N, 128°41′31.11″E, 26 Sep-3 Nov 2014, Lee JW; 1♂, Gyeongsan-si, Dae-dong, Yeungnam Univ., 6 Jun 1996, Yang JD; GN: 1♂, Sancheong-gun, Sicheon-myeon, Jungsan-ri, Mt. Jirisan, Sunduryu, 26 Jun 1989; 1♂, ditto, 35°16′29.75″N, 127°33′57.57″E, 18 Jul-12 Oct 2011, Jeong JC; Gwangju: 1♀, Dong-gu, Jisan-dong, Mt. Mudeungsan, 16 Aug 1990; JN: 1♂, Gurye-gun, Gurye-eup, Mt. Jirisan, Nogodan, 35°17′47.11″N, 127°31′36.48″E, 20 May-10 Oct 2011, Jeong JC.

Additional material examined. Russia: 1♀, Khabarovsk kray, Bychicha, 20 Aug 1970, Kasparyan DR; 1♂, from Kudara-Somon bur (13 km), Dungaj, 9 Aug 1970, Kasparyan.

Diagnosis. Hind coxa, hind trochanter, hind trochantellus and basal area of hind femur reddish brown; basal median band of hind tibia whitish yellow (Fig. 2B). Pronotum entirely polished; upper area of pronotum sparsely punctate, with sparse hairs; basal lower and mid area of pronotum rugose; apical lower area of pronotum smooth; epomia entirely distinct. Metapleuron weakly polished, smooth, except basal upper area sparsely punctate, with sparse hairs; apical upper area with wrinkle. Hind wing with a basal hamulus and nine distal hamuli.

Fig. 2.A-E, Pimpla femorella Kasparyan, 1974. A, Habitus of female in lateral view; B, Face of male in frontal view; C, Scutellum to propodeum of male in dorsal view; D, Mesopleuron of female in lateral view; E, 2nd-3rd epipleuron of female in ventral view (area indicated by triangle shaped mark). Scale bars: A=1 mm, B-E=0.2 mm.

Distribution. Korea (new record), Russia.

Region. Eastern Palaearctic.

Host. Unknown.

1*Pimpla kaszabi (Momoi, 1973) (Fig. 3)

Material examined. Korea: GG: 1♀, Pocheon-si, Soheul-eup, Jikdong-ri, Korea Nat’l Arboretum, Gwangreung Forest, Alt. 123 m, 37°45′22″N, 127°9′48.9″E, 16-30 Jun 2012, Park SY, Lim JO, Lim JS; GN: 1♀, Namhae-gun, Samdong-myeon, Bonghwa-ri, Namhae Butterfly Park, Alt. 198 m, 34°45′26.91″N, 128°0′40.2″E, 16-30 Jun 2012, Kang TG; 1♂, Sacheon-si, Gonmyeong-myeon, Yongsan-ri, 29 Apr 1989, Lee JW; Ulsan: 1♂, Ulju-gun, Sangbuk-myeon, Mt. Gajisan, 15 Apr 1989, Seo GW.

Diagnosis. Fore leg reddish brown, except coxa black. Hind coxa, basal and apical area of hind tibia, apical area of hind 1st tarsomere, 2nd-5th hind tarsomeres and apical area of hind tarsal claw black; basal area of hind tibia with whitish band of tibia. Pronotum entirely polished; upper area of pronotum sparsely punctate, with sparse hairs; lower and apical area of pronotum with wrinkle; epomia entirely distinct. Propodeum densely punctate, with dense hairs, except median upper and lower area smooth; lateral-median longitudinal carina indistinct, extending to basal area (Fig. 3D). Hind wing with a basal hamulus and seven distal hamuli.

Fig. 3.A-E, Pimpla kaszabi (Momoi, 1973). A, Habitus of male in dorsal view; B, Face of male in frontal view; C, 6th-7th antennal flagellomeres of male in lateral view; D, Scutellum to propodeum of male in dorsal view; E, 2nd-3rd epipleuron of female in ventral view (area indicated by triangle shaped mark). Scale bars: A=1 mm, B-E=0.2 mm.

Distribution. Korea (new record), Mongolia, Russia.

Region. Eastern Palaearctic.

Host. Unknown.

2*Pimpla melanacrias Perkins, 1941 (Fig. 4)

Material examined. Korea: Seoul: 1♂, Yangcheon-gu, Mok-dong, 23 Nov 1983, Lee JW; GB: 1♀, Gyeongsan-si, Dae-dong, Yeungnam Univ., 21 May 1987, Seo GI.

Diagnosis. Antenna with 29-30 flagellomeres. Hind leg reddish brown except apical area of femur, basal and apical area of tibia black; mid area of hind tibia with whitish band. Pronotum entirely polished; upper area of pronotum sparsely punctate, with sparse hairs; lower area of pronotum with striate obliquely; epomia entirely indistinct. Propodeum densely punctate, with dense hairs; median upper area of propodeum sparsely punctate, with sparse hairs; lower median area of propodeum with wrinkle (Fig. 4D). Hind wing with a basal hamulus and eight distal hamuli.

Fig. 4.A-G, Pimpla melanacrias Perkins, 1941. A, Habitus of male in lateral view; B, 6th-7th antennal flagellomeres of male in dorsal view (area indicated by triangle shaped mark); C, 6th-7th antennal flagellomeres of male in lateral view (area indicated by triangle shaped mark); D, Scutellum to propodeum of male in dorsal view; E, Mesopleuron of female in lateral view; F, 2nd-4th metasomal tergites of female in lateral view; G, 2nd-3th epipleuron of female in ventral view (area indicated by triangle shaped mark). Scale bars: A=1 mm, B-G=0.2 mm.

Distribution. Korea (new record), Armenia, Austria, Europe, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Ukraine.

Region. Eastern Palaearctic, Western Palaearctic.

Host. [Lepidoptera] Tortricidae: Acleris sp. (Shaw, 2006).

3*Pimpla aethiops Curtis, 1828

Material examined. Korea: GW: 2♂♂, Hongcheon-gun, Bukbang-myeon, Environment Research Park, 37°45′15.6″N, 127°51′1.7″E, 1-16 May 2013, Jang SJ; GG: 2♂♂, Namyangju-si, Choan-myeon, Songchon-ri, Mt. Ungilsan, Alt. 99 m, 37°34′43.2″N, 127°18′40.1″E, 27 May-10 Jun 2009, Lim JO; 1♂, Osan-si, Geumam-dong, Mulhyanggi Arboretum, Alt. 38 m, 37°10′3.1″N, 127°3′24.2″E, 30 Aug-16 Sep 2013, Kwon YD, Ji YM; CB: 1♀, Cheongju-si, Seowon-gu, Chungdae-ro, Chungbuk National Univ., 4 Nov 1999, Kyeong KW; GB: 1♀, Yeongcheon-si, Cheongtong-myeon, Chiil-ri, San 25-1, 35°59′31.48″N, 127°45′13.92″E, 23 Oct 2014, Kang GW; JN: 1♂, Gurye-gun, Masan-myeon, Hwangjeon-ri, Hwaeom valley, 35°15′32.08″N, 127°29′55.67″E, 20 May 2011, Jeong JC; JJ: 2♀♀, Seoguipo-si, Topyeong-myeon, San 15-1, Mt. Hanrasan, Baekrokdam, 5 Jun 1968, Yoon UH; 1♂, Unknown.

Diagnosis. Antenna with 30-35 flagellomeres. Entire fore coxa, fore trochanter, lower and basal area of fore trochantellus, outer and basal inner area of fore femur and apical area of fore tarsal claw black; apical upper area of fore trochantellus and basal outer area of fore femur reddish black; apical and mid inner area of fore femur and inner area of fore tibia yellowish brown. Mid leg entirely black. Hind leg black, except basal area of tarsal claw reddish brown. Pronotum weakly polished, densely punctate, with dense hairs; lower basal area of pronotum distinctly rugose; lower apical area of pronotum smooth. Epomia distinct. Thyridium elongated.

Distribution. Korea, Austria, China, Europe, Japan, Russia.

Region. Eastern Palaearctic, Western Palaearctic.

Host. [Lepidoptera] Erebidae: Hyphandria cunea (Yang et al., 2006, 2008); Geometridae: Abraxas suspecta (Wang, 2009); Hesperiidae: Parnara guttata (Chen et al., 2009); Lasiocampidae: Dendrolimus punctatus (Chai et al., 2000), Dendrolimus spectabilis (Chen et al., 2009); Papilionidae: Papilio machaon (Shaw et al., 2009); Psychidae: Cryptothelea minuscula (Chen et al., 2009); Tortricidae: Homona coffearia (Chen et al., 2009), Zeiraphera griseana (Sheng and Sun, 2010).

1*Pimpla alboannulata Uchida, 1928

Material examined. Data describing specimens used for morphological study are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 to describe seasonal and regional appearance progress of species (Including 33 ♂♂ and 86 ♀♀ specimens).

Table 1.GG, Gyeonggi-do; GW, Gangwon-do; CB, Chungcheongbuk-do; CN, Chungcheongnam-do; GB, Gyeongsangbuk-do; GN, Gyeongsangnam-do; JB, Jeollabuk-do; JN, Jeollanam-do; JJ, Jeju-do.

Table 2.Material examined of Pimpla alboannulata, P. disparis, P. luctuosa and P. pluto (date of collection)

Diagnosis. Antenna with 29-32 flagellomeres. Outer basal area of fore femur and basal area of fore tarsal claw reddish brown; inner mid and apical area of fore femur, inner area of fore tibia and basal mark of outer area of fore tibia whitish brown; apical outer area of fore tibia and fore tarsomeres dark brown. Mid trochanter, basal area of mid trochantellus and apical median band of mid tibia whitish yellow; entire 1st-2nd mid tarsomeres, ventral area of 3rd-4th mid tarsomeres and 5th mid tarsomere, basal area of mid tarsal claw dark brown; dorso-basal area of 3rd-4th mid tarsomeres yellowish brown. Hind trochanter, basal area of hind trochantellus and apical median band of hind tibia whitish yellow; 1st-2nd hind tarsomeres, ventral and lateral area of 3rd-5th hind tarsomeres dark brown; dorsal area of 3rd-5th hind tarsomeres reddish black; basal lateral area of hind tarsal claw reddish brown. Pronotum weakly polished, upper and apical area of pronotum densely punctate, with dense hairs; mid, lower and basal area of pronotum distinctly rugose. Epomia distinct, extending to mid area.

Distribution. Korea, China, Japan, Russia.

Region. Eastern Palaearctic, Oriental.

Remarks. We also observed a type specimen from HU, Japan.

Host. Unknown.

1*Pimpla disparis Viereck, 1911

Material examined. Data describing specimens used for morphological study are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 to describe seasonal and regional appearance progress of species (Including 42 ♂♂ and 136 ♀♀ specimens).

Diagnosis. Antenna with 28-34 flagellomeres. Fore leg reddish brown, except entire coxa, trochanter and basal and mid area of trochantellus black. Mid coxa, mid trochanter, mid trochantellus, basal area of mid tibia, apical area of 5th mid tarsomere and entire mid tarsal claw black. Hind leg black, except basal and mid area of femur reddish brown. Pronotum weakly polished, upper, apical and basal mid area of pronotum densely punctate, with dense hairs; mid area of pronotum distinctly rugose; lower area of pronotum smooth. Metapleuron polished, densely punctate, with dense hairs; lower half of metapleuron with obliquely distinct wrinkle.

Distribution. Korea, Canada, China, India, Japan, Mongolia, Russia, United states.

Region. Eastern Palaearctic, Oriental, Nearctic.

Host. [Lepidoptera] Erebidae: Hyphandria cunea (Yang et al., 2006, 2008), Ivela auripes (Choi et al., 2015), Lymantria dispar (Hastings et al., 2002), Teia antiquiodes (Li et al., 2009); Lasiocampidae: Dendrolimus punctatus (Chai et al., 2000); Psychidae: Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Ellis et al., 2005); Pyralidae: Dioryctria pryeri (Sheng and Sun, 2010), Dioryctria rubella (Sheng and Sun, 2010), Zeiraphera griseana (Sheng and Sun, 2010); Yponomeutidae: Yponomeuta malinella (Lee and Pemberton, 2005).

2*Pimpla luctuosa Smith, 1874

Material examined. Data describing specimens used for morphological study are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 to describe seasonal and regional appearance progress of species (Including 183 ♂♂ and 207 ♀♀ specimens).

Diagnosis. Antenna with 32-35 flagellomeres. Inner mid and apical area of fore femur, inner area of fore tibia and lower basal area of 1st fore tarsomere brown; apical area of fore trochantellus, basal area of fore femur, outer area of fore tibia, entire 5th fore tarsomere and basal area of fore tarsal claw reddish brown; upper, lower mid and apical area of 1st fore tarsomere and 2nd-4th fore tarsomeres reddish black. Mid leg black except basal area of femur and lower area of 5th tarsomere reddish black. Hind leg black except apical area of trochantellus, basal area of femur and lower basal area of tarsal claw reddish black. Metapleuron weakly polished, distinctly rugose, except upper basal area of metapleuron distinctly reticulate. Propodeum polished, reticulate, except each edge side area of propodeum densely punctate, with dense hairs.

Distribution. Korea, China, Japan, Russia.

Region. Eastern Palaearctic, Oriental.

Host. [Lepidoptera] Lasiocampidae: Dendrolimus punctatus (Chai et al., 2000).

1*Pimpla nipponica Uchida, 1928

Material examined. Korea: GW: 3♀♀, Goseong-gun, Ganseong-eup, Geonbongsa Temple, 22 May 1992, Lee JW; 1♀, Goseong-gun, Ganseong-eup, Heul-ri, Jinburyeong, 13 May 1993, Ryu SM; 1♀, Sokcho-si, Seolak-dong, Mt. Seolaksan, Gongryong neungseon, 18 Aug 1987, Cha JY; GG: 1♀, Bogwangsa Temple, 28 May 1978, Han CS; 1♀, Gunpo-si, Dundae-dong, 28 May 1999, Seo JY; 1♀, Namyangju-si, Gapyeong-gun, Sudong-myeon, Sang-ri, Mt. Chukryeongsan, 19 Oct 1980, Jang GS; 1♀, Osan-si, Geumam-dong, Mulhyanggi Arboretum, (Alt. 38 m), 37°10′3.1″N, 127°3′24.2″E, 30 Aug-16 Sep 2013, Kwon YD et al; 1♀, Pocheon-si, Soheul-eup, Jikdong-ri, Korea Nat’l Arboretum, Gwangreung forest, (M.T.II), (Alt. 123 m), 37°45′22″N, 127°9′48.9″E, 16-30 Sep 2013, Park et al; CB: 1♂, Asan-si, Yeomchi-eup, Seowon1-ri, 36°49′48.7″N, 126°57′21.7″E, (Alt. 21 m), 19 May 2006, Lee HS; 1♀, Danyang-gun, Gagok-myeon, Eoeuigok-ri, Mt. Sobaeksan, Pirobong, 18 Aug 1994, Kim JI; 1♀, Okcheon-gun, Gunbuk-myeon, Sojeong-ri, 23 Oct 1999, Kim JI; CN: 1♀, Cheonan-si, 31 Nov 1983, Lee JW; GB: 1♀, Gunwi-gun, Bugye-myeon, Dongsan-ri, San73, Mt. Palgongsan, 2 Jul 1982, Kwon YJ; 1♂, ditto, 22 Apr 1980, Kwon YJ; 1♀, Gyeongju-si, Inwang-dong, Banwolseong, 31 May 1991, Lee KH; 1♀, Gyeongsan-si, Dae-dong, Yeungnam Univ., 1 May 1992, Lee MG; 1♀, ditto, 12 Jul 1986, Choi IM; 1♀, ditto, 13 May 1989, Ju CH; 1♂, ditto, 15 Apr 1988, Cha JY; 1♂, ditto, 19 Apr 1991, Kim ES; 2♂♂ 1♀, ditto, 19 Apr 1991, Kim JG; 1♀, ditto, 19 Apr 1991, Kim YS; 1♂, ditto, 2 May 1990, Lee JH; 1♀, ditto, 2 Jun 1997, Park HG; 1♀, ditto, 2 Jun 1997, Joe MR; 1♀, ditto, 24 May 1995, Choi HR; 1♀, ditto, 24 Jun 1994, Kim HM; 2♂♂, ditto, 26 Apr 1991, Kwon OS; 2♂♂, ditto, 26 Apr 1991, Kim YS; 1♀, ditto, 27 May 1991, Jeong DG; 1♂, ditto, 29 Apr 1991, Kang HJ; 1♂, ditto, 3 May 1988, Kim HG; 3♀♀, ditto, 3 Jul 1986, Lee JW; 1♂, ditto, 30 Aug 1988; 1♂, ditto, 4 Dec 1987, Choi WY; 1♂, ditto, 8 Apr 1987; 1♂, ditto, 8 May 1989, Cha JY; 5♀♀, ditto, 35°53′N, 128°47′E, (M.T.), 17-24 Apr 2009, Lee JW; 1♀, ditto, 8-15 May 2009, Lee JW; 1♀, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeyang-dong, 7 Jul 1986, Cha JY; 1♂, Kimcheon-si, Apo-eup, 7 Jun 1992, Dong KM; 1♀, Uljin-gun, Seo-myeon, Hawon-ri, Bulyeong valley, 10 May 1991, Bae JH; 1♀, ditto, 6 May 1991, Han JG; 1♀, Ulreung-gun, Seo-myeon, Namyang-ri, Namyang-cheon, 16 Oct 2001, Jeong JC; 1♀, Ulreung-gun, Seo-myeon, Taeha-ri, 30 Jul 2001, Jeon YT; 1♀, Ulreung-gun, Ulreung-eup, Dodong-ri, 128, Ulreungdo, 8 May 1956; 1♀, Ulreung-gun, Ulreung-eup, Jeodong-ri, 2 Aug 1983, Lee JW; Daegu: 1♀, Suseong-gu, Beommul-dong, Mt. Daedeoksan, 14 Jul 1998, Lee JW; GN: 1♂, Milyang-si, Danjang-myeon, Pyochungsa Temple, 7 Jun 1995, Gwak GH; 2♂♂, Hapcheon-gun, Daeyang-myeon, Jeongyang-ri, 18 May 2002, Jeong JC; 1♀, Namhae-gun, Sangju-myeon, Sangju-ri, Mt. Geumsan, 2 May 1981, Lee HD; JN: 1♂, Gurye-gun, Masan-myeon, Hwangjeon-ri, Hwaeom valley, 35°15′32.08″N, 127°29′55.67″E, 20 May 2011, Jeong JC; 1♀, Gwangyang-si, Okryong-myeon, Mt. Baekunsan, 12 May 1990, Cha JY; 1♀, Hampyeong-gun, Daedong-myeon, Secho-ri, (Alt. 118 m), 35°07′25.6″N, 126°33′12.4″E, 30 Apr 2004, Lim JO; 1♀, no data.

Additional material examined. Japan: 1♀, Hokkai-do, Sapporo-si, Juo-gu, Maruyama, 20 Oct 1922, Uchida T; USA: 1♂, Florida, Gainesville, 11-20 Apr 1991, Lee JW.

Diagnosis. Antenna with 27-30 flagellomeres. Fore leg reddish brown except entire coxa black. Mid leg reddish brown except coxa black; apical area of coxa with reddish brown mark. Hind coxa, basal and apical area of hind trochantellus, basal and apical area of hind tibia, apical area of 1st-4th hind tarsomeres, entire 5th hind tarsomere and entire hind tarsal claw black; apical area of hind coxa and basal ventral mark of 5th hind tarsomere reddish brown. Pronotum weakly polished, upper area of pronotum densely punctate; basal mid area of pronotum relatively sparsely punctate; apical mid and lower area of pronotum distinctly rugose. Epomia relatively indistinct. Metapleuron polished, densely punctate, with dense hairs; upper area of metapleuron indistinctly rugose.

Distribution. Korea, China, Europe, India, Japan, Russia, United States (new record).

Region. Eastern Palaearctic, Nearctic (new record), Oriental, Western Palaearctic.

Host. [Lepidoptera] Noctuidae: Naranga aenescens (Chen et al., 2009); Pieridae: Aporia crataegi (Chen et al., 2009), Pieris rapae crucivora (Chen et al., 2009); Pyralidae: Dioryctria rubella (Sun et al., 2006; Sheng and Sun, 2010), Dioryctria schuetzeella (Sheng and Sun, 2010).

Remarks. We additionally observed a type specimen from HU, Japan. This species is recorded from United States and the Nearctic region for the first time.

1*Pimpla pluto Ashmead, 1906

Material examined. Data describing specimens used for morphological study are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 to describe seasonal and regional appearance progress of species (Including 50♂♂ and 46♀♀ specimens).

Diagnosis. Antenna with 30-33 flagellomeres. Entire fore coxa, fore trochanter, basal area of fore trochantellus, inner subbasal and outer area of fore femur black; outer mid area of fore femur, basal area of fore femur and apical area of fore trochantellus reddish brown; inner mid-apical area of fore femur, inner area of fore tibia yellow. Apical area of mid trochantellus and basal area of mid femur reddish brown; mid coxa, mid trochanter, basal-subapical area of trochantellus, basal-subapical area of mid tibia, apical area of 5th mid tarsomere and mid tarsal claw black. Hind leg black, except apical area of trochantellus and basal area of femur reddish brown. Metapleuron polished, upper and mid area of metapleuron densely punctate, with dense hairs; mid and lower area of metapleuron distinctly rugose. Propodeum weakly polished, densely punctate, with dense hairs, except mid area of propodeum distinctly reticulate.

Distribution. Korea, China, Japan, Kazakhstan, Russia.

Region. Eastern Palaearctic, Oriental.

Host. Unknown.

2*Pimpla rufipes (Miller, 1759)

Material examined. Korea: Seoul: 1♀, Dobong-gu, Dobong-dong, Mt. Dobongsan, 30 Oct 1982, Kim HS.

Additional material examined. Bulgaria: 1♀, Strandja, Vitanovo, 28 Jun 2000, Kolarov J; 1♀, Vitosha, Bosnek, (Alt. 940 m), 8 May 1999, Kolarov J; Ukraine: 1♀, Dnieper River, 7 May 1943.

Diagnosis. Antenna with 32-37 flagellomeres. Fore leg reddish brown except entire coxa black, trochanter and basal area of trochantellus reddish black. Mid leg reddish brown, except entire coxa, trochanter and basal area of trochantelllus reddish black. Entire hind coxa, hind trochanter, basal and apical area of hind trochantellus, basal area of hind femur, apical area of 1st hind tarsomere and 2nd-5th hind tarsomeres reddish black. Metapleuron polished; upper basal area of metapleuron densely punctate, with dense hairs; lower and apical lower area of metapleuron with distinct transverse wrinkle. Hind wing with a basal hamulus, 12 distal hamuli.

Distribution. Korea, Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaizan, China, Cyprus, Egypt, Europe, Georgia, India, Iran, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Russia, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

Region. Palaearctic, Oriental.

Host. [Lepidoptera] Erebidae: Calliteara fascelina (Shaw et al., 2009), Lymantria monacha (Bauer, 2002); Lycaenidae: Lycaena dispar (Shaw et al., 2009), Lycaena dispar batava (Shaw et al., 2009); Noctuidae: Acronicta rumicis (Okyar and Yurtcan, 2007), Lacanobia oleracea (Okyar and Yurtcan, 2007); Nymphalidae: Charaxes jasius (Shaw et al., 2009), Eurodryas aurinia (Shaw et al., 2009; Stefanescu et al., 2009), Vanessa atalanta (Shaw et al., 2009); Papilionidae: Papilio machaon (Shaw et al., 2009); Pieridae: Colias croceus (Shaw et al., 2009), Pieris brassicae (Shaw et al., 2009), Pieris napi (Shaw et al., 2009), Pieris rapae (Shaw et al., 2009); Tortricidae: Archips rosana (Piekarska et al., 2002).

1*Pimpla turionellae (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined. No Korean specimen was available for this study.

Additional material examined. Bulgaria: 1♀, Rhodope, Yellowstone, 11 Jun 1972, Kolarov J; 1♂, ditto, 18 Jun 1972, Kolarov J; Mongolia: 1♀, Mongolia National University forest, Site-4, Tov, Udeligrin Dugan, 48°26′22.68″N, 106°84′89.16″E, 4 Jul 2013, Choi JK.

Diagnosis. Antenna with 26-30 flagellomeres. Fore leg reddish brown except entire coxa black; trochanter reddish black; inner area of tibia brown. Entire mid coxa, basal and mid area of mid trochanter, basal and mid area of mid tibia black; subbasal area of mid tibia with white band. Entire hind coxa, ventral, dorso-basal and mid area of hind trochanter, ventral basal and mid area of hind trochantellus, apical area of hind femur and basal area of hind tibia black; subbasal area of tibia with white band; mid and apical area of hind tibia reddish black. Pronotum polished; upper area of pronotum sparsely punctate, with sparse hairs; basal mid area of pronotum, with distinct transverse wrinkle; mid and lower area of pronotum smooth; apical upper area of pronotum with yellow mark. Metapleuron polished; upper and mid area of metapleuron densely punctate, with dense hairs; lower area of metapleuron relatively sparsely punctate, with sparse hairs, sometimes smooth.

Distribution. Korea, Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaizan, Canada, China, Europe, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Myanmar, Russia, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

Region. Holarctic, Oriental.

Host. [Hymenoptera] Braconidae: Macrocentrus pallipes (Pisica and Diaconu, 2000); [Lepidoptera] Erebidae: Hyphandria cunea (Yang et al., 2006, 2008); Lasiocampidae: Dendrolimus punctatus (Chai et al., 2000); Lycaenidae: Satyrium w-album (Shaw et al., 2009); Pieridae: Pieris rapae (Shaw et al., 2009); Tortricidae: Archips rosana (Ozdemir and Ozdemir, 2002; Piekarska et al., 2002, 2005), Enarmonia formosana (Tanigoshi and Starý, 2003; Jenner et al., 2004), Rhyacionia resinella (Sedivy, 2001).

Remarks. No Korean specimen was available for this study. However we have specimens from Bulgaria and Mongolia.

Acknowledgement

Grant : 자생생물 조사·발굴

Supported by : 영남대학교

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