- Volume 17 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Is Health Locus of Control a Modifying Factor in the Health Belief Model for Prediction of Breast Self-Examination?
- Tahmasebi, Rahim (Department of Health and the Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences) ;
- Noroozi, Azita (Department of Health and the Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences)
- Published : 2016.06.01
Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world. Early detection is necessary to improve outcomes and decrease related costs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of health locus of control as a modifying factor in the Health Belief Model (HBM) for prediction of breast self-examination. Materials and Methods: In this cross- sectional study, 400 women selected through the convenience sampling from health centers. Data were collected using part of the Champion's HBM scale (CHBMS), the Health Locus of Control Scale and a self administered questionnaire. For data analysis by SPSS the independent T test, Chi square test, logistic and linear regression modes were appliedl. Results: The results showed that 10.9% of the participants reported performing BSE regularly. Health locus of control did not act as a predictor of BSE as a modifying factor. In this study, perceived self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of BSE performance (Exp (B) =1.863) with direct effect, while awareness had direct and indirect influence. Conclusions: For increasing BSE, improvement of self-efficacy especially in young women and increasing knowledge about cancer is necessary.
Breast cancer;breast self examination;Health Belief Model;health locus of control
- Andersen MR, Smith R, Meischke H, et al (2003). Breast cancer worry and mammography use by women with and without a family history in a population-based sample. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev, 12, 314-20.
- Avci IA (2008). Factors associated with breast self-examination practices and beliefs in female workers at a Muslim community. Eur J Oncol Nurs, 12, 127-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2007.11.006
- Bottorff JL, Johnson JL, Bhagat R, et al (1998). Beliefs related to breast health practices: the perceptions of South Asian women living in Canada. Soc Sci Med, 47, 2075-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00346-3
- Canbulat N, Uzun O (2008). Health beliefs and breast cancer screening behaviors among female health workers in Turkey. Eur J Oncol Nurs, 12, 148-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2007.12.002
- Cheryl JH, Deborah IF, John C (1999). Health beliefs, health locus of control, and women's mammography behavior. Cancer Nurs, 22, 149-56. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002820-199904000-00007
- Cohen M, Azaiza F (2005). Early breast cancer detection practices, health beliefs, and cancer worries in Jewish and Arab women. Prev Med, 41, 852-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.07.001
- Erbay Dundar P, Ozmen D, Ozturk B, et al (2006). The knowledge and attitudes of breast self-examination and mammography in a group of women in a rural area in western Turkey. BMC Cancer, 6, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-6-1
- Glenn BL, Moore LA (1990). Relationship of self-concept, health locus of control, and perceived cancer treatment options to the practice of breast self-examination. Cancer Nurs, 13, 361-5.
- Hackshaw AK, Paul EA (2003). Breast self-examination and death from breast cancer: A meta-analysis. Br J Cancer, 88, 1047-53. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6600847
- Hallal JC (1982). The relationship of health beliefs, health locus of control, and self concept to the practice of breast selfexamination in adult women. Nurs Res, 31, 137-42.
- Han Y, Williams RD, Harrison RA (2000). Breast cancer screening knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Korean American women. Oncol Nurs Forum, 27, 1585-91.
- Jirojwong S, Mac Lennan R (2003). Health beliefs, perceived self-efficacy, and breast self-examination among Thai migrants in Brisbane. J Adv Nurs, 41, 241-9. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02552.x
- Mc Caul KD, Branstetter AD, Schroeder DM, et al (1996). What is the relationship between breast cancer risk and mammography screening? A meta-analytic review. Health Psychol, 15, 423-429. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6220.127.116.113
- Noroozi A, Tahmasebi R (2011). Factors influencing breast cancer screening behavior among Iranian women. Asian Pac J cancer Prev, 12, 1239-44.
- Noroozi A, Jomand T, Tahmasebi R (2011). Determinants of breast cancer self examination performance among Iranian women: An application of the Health Belief Model. J Canc Educ, 26, 36574.
- Petro-Nustus W, Mikhail BI (2002). Factors associated with breast self-examination among Jordanian women. Public Health Nurs, 19, 263-71. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1446.2002.19406.x
- Rowe JL, Montgomery GH, Duberstein PR, et al (2005). Health locus of control and perceived risk for breast cancer in healthy women. Behav Med, 31, 33-40. https://doi.org/10.3200/BMED.31.1.33-42
- Sadat Tavafians S, Hasani L, Aghamolaei T, et al (2009). Prediction of breast self examination in a sample of Iranian women: an application of the health belief model. BMC Women Health, 9, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-9-1
- Sadler GR, Ko CM, Cohn JA, et al (2007). Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the black cosmetologists promoting health program. BMC Public Health, 7, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-7-1
- Schultz DP, Schultz ES (2005). Theories of personality. 8th ed. United state: Thomson Wadsworth.
- Secginli S, Nahcivan NO (2006). Factors associated with breast cancer screening behaviors in a sample of Turkish women: a questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud, 43, 161-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2005.02.004
- Straughan PT, Seow A (2000). Attitudes as barriers in breast screening: a prospective study among Singapore women. Soc Sci Med, 51, 1695-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00086-1
- Tastan S, Iyigun E, Kilic A, et al (2011). Health beliefs concerning breast self examination of nurses in Turkey. Asian Nurs Res, 5, 151-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anr.2011.09.001
- Taymoori P, Berry TR (2009). The validity and reliability of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale for breast cancer screening behaviours among Iranian women. Cancer Nurs, 32, 465-72. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181aaf124
- Umhe K, Dimitrakaki V (2003). Breast cancer detection in asymptomatic women: Health beliefs implicated in secondary prevention. J Appl Behav Res, 8, 96-115.
- Wallston KA (2007). Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scale (Form B). http://www.nursing.vanderbilt.edu/faculty/kwallston/mhlcscales.htm.
- Yan Yee Y (2009). Breast cancer: Knowledge perceptions of Chinese women in Hong Kong. GJHS, 1, 97-105.