- Volume 17 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Factors Delaying Presentation of Sudanese Breast Cancer Patients: an Analysis Using Andersen's Model
- Salih, Alaaddin M (Faculty of Medicine, International University of Africa) ;
- Alfaki, Musab M (National Academy of Health Sciences) ;
- Alam-Elhuda, Dafallah M (Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum) ;
- Nouradyem, Momin M (National Ribat University and Central Police Hospitals, National Ribat University)
- Published : 2016.06.01
Purpose: A multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted to assess factors delaying presentation of breast cancer cases. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from a pair of highly specialized referral centers, both located in the center of the Sudanese capital, Khartoum. For a total of 153 eligible respondents, durations of delay, clinicodemographic factors and reasons of referral were collected from our respondents through self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis and ANOVA were used to test the relation between periods of delay and different factors. Odd ratios (OR's) and their correspondent Confidence intervals (95% CI's). Delay periods were studied with Andersen's model. Results: The average duration of delay in our study was 11.9 (
- Abuidris D, Elgaili E, Rahman M, Mohammed S (2008). Female breast cancer in Central Sudan-A tragedy of young age and late presentation. Cancer Res, 68, 3851.
- Alawad ALM (2014). Evaluation of clinical and pathological response after two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on sudanese patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Ethiop J Health Sci, 24, 15-20.
- Alawad AA, Alshiekh AA, Alhaj AM (2013). Demographic characteristics and review of patients with locally advanced breast cancer in Sudan. Afrimedic J, 4, 5-8.
- Ali R, Mathew A, Rajan B (2008). Effects of socio-economic and demographic factors in delayed reporting and late-stage presentation among patients with breast cancer in a major cancer hospital in South India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9, 703-7.
- Andersen BL, Cacioppo JT (1995). Delay in seeking a cancer diagnosis: delay stages and psychophysiological comparison processes. Br J Soc Psychol, 34, 33-52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1995.tb01047.x
- Benson JR, Jatoi I (2012). The global breast cancer burden. Future Oncol, 8, 697-702. https://doi.org/10.2217/fon.12.61
- Binder M, Roberts C, Spencer N, Antoine D, Cartwright C (2014). On the Antiquity of Cancer: Evidence for Metastatic Carcinoma in a Young Man from Ancient Nubia (c. 1200BC). PLOS ONE, 9, 90924. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090924
- Bodapati SL, Babu GR (2013). Oncologist perspectives on breast cancer screening in India - results from a qualitative study in Andhra Pradesh. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5817-23. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.10.5817
- Brzozowska A, Duma D, Mazurkiewicz T, Brzozowski W, Mazurkiewicz M (2014). Reasons for delay in treatment of breast cancer detected due to breast self-examination in women from the Lubelskie region. Ginekol Pol, 85, 14-7.
- Cancer Research UK (2012). Lifetime risk of breast cancer[homepage on the Internet]. London: July 26.
- Cheng MA, Ling DY, Nanu PKP, Nording H, Lim CH (2015). Factors influencing late stage of breast cancer at presentation in a district Hospital, Segamat Hospital, Johor. Med J Malaysia, 70, 148-52.
- Facione NC (1993). Delay versus help seeking for breast cancer symptoms: a critical review of the literature on patient and provider delay. Soc Sci Med, 36, 1521-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(93)90340-A
- Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, et al (2015). Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer, 136, 359-86. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29210
- Fregene A, Newman LA (2005). Breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: how does it relate to breast cancer in African-American women?. Cancer, 103, 1540-50. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.20978
- Galukande M, Mirembe F, Wabinga H (2014). Patient delay in accessing breast cancer care in a sub saharan african country: uganda. Br J Med Med Res, 4, 2599-610. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJMMR/2014/7293
- Gismalla MD, Alawad AMA, Alshaihk AA, Alhaj A, Mohamed ME (2014). Factors associated with local recurrence after mastectomy for invasive breast cancer in Sudanese patients. Intl Res Med Sci, 2, 26-30.
- Harirchi I, Ghaemmaghami F, Karbakhsh M, Moghimi R, Mazaherie H (2005). Patient delay in women presenting with advanced breast cancer: An Iranian study. Public Health, 119, 885-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2004.11.005
- Innos K, Padrik P, Valvere V, Eelma E, Kutner R, Lehtsaar J, Tekkel M (2013). Identifying women at risk for delayed presentation of breast cancer: a cross-sectional study in Estonia. BMC Public Health, 13, 947. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-947
- Khan MA, Hanif S, Iqbal S, Shahzad MF, Shafique S, Khan MT (2015). Presentation delay in breast cancer patients and its association with sociodemographic factors in North Pakistan. Chin J Cancer Res, 27, 288-93.
- Kumari PBVR, Goonewardena CSE (2001). Delay among women reporting symptoms of breast cancer. J Coll Comm Physc Sri Lanka, 16, 17-22.
- Memon ZA, Shaikh AN, Rizwan S, Sardar MB (2013). Reasons for patient’s delay in diagnosis of breast carcinoma in Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 7409-14. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.12.7409
- Montella M, Crispo A, D’Aiuto G, et al (2001). Determinant factors for diagnostic delay in operable breast cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Prev, 10, 53-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008469-200102000-00006
- Nguyen-Pham S, Leung J, McLaughlin D (2014). Disparities in breast cancer stage at diagnosis in urban and rural adult women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Epidemiol, 24, 228-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.12.002
- Norsa'adah B, Rampal KG, Rahmah MA, Naing NN, Biswal BM (2011). Diagnosis delay of breast cancer and its associated factors in Malaysian women. BMC Cancer, 11, 141. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-11-141
- Odongo J, Makumbi T, Kalungi S, Galukande M (2015). Patient delay factors in women presenting with breast cancer in a low income country. BMC Res Notes, 8, 467. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1438-8
- Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P (2005). Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 74-108. https://doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.55.2.74
- Pineros M, Sanchez R, Cendales R, Perry F, Ocampo R (2009). Patient delay among Colombian women with breast cancer. Salud Publica Mex, 51, 372-80.
- Poum A, Promthet S, Duffy SW, et al (2014). Factors associated with delayed diagnosis of breast cancer in northeast Thailand. J Epidemiol, 24, 102-8. https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20130090
- Pruitt L, Mumuni T, Raikhel E, et al (2015). Social barriers to diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in patients presenting at a teaching hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Glob Public Health, 10, 331-44. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2014.974649
- Ramirez AJ, Westcombe AM, Burgess CC, Sutton S, Littlejohns P, Richards MA (1999). Factors predicting delayed presentation of symptomatic breast cancer: a systematic review. Lancet, 353, 1127-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(99)02142-X
- Ruddy KJ, Gelber S, Tamimi RM, et al (2014). Breast cancer presentation and diagnostic delays in young women. Cancer 120, 20-25. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.28287
- Stapleton JM, Mullan PB, Dey S, Hablas A, Gaafar R, Seifeldin IA, Banerjee M, Soliman AS (2011). Patient-mediated factors predicting early- and late-stage presentation of breast cancer in Egypt. Psychooncol, 20, 532-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1767
- Thongsuksai P, Chongsuvivatwong V, Sriplung H (2000). Delay in breast cancer care: a study in Thai women. Med Care, 38, 108-14. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005650-200001000-00012
- Unger-Saldana K (2014). Challenges to the early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in developing countries. World J Clin Oncol, 5, 465-77. https://doi.org/10.5306/wjco.v5.i3.465
- From symptom discovery to treatment - women's pathways to breast cancer care: a cross-sectional study vol.18, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4219-7