Dietary Patterns and Risk of Breast Cancer in Women in Guilan Province, Iran

  • Ahmadnia, Zahra (Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Joukar, Farahnaz (Gastrointestinal & Liver Diseases Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Hasavari, Farideh (Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Roushan, Zahra Atrkar (Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Khalili, Malahat (Gastrointestinal & Liver Diseases Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences)
  • 발행 : 2016.06.01


Background: Several studies have pointed to roles of dietary and food groups in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, but information on dietary patterns among women with breast cancer and their healthy counterparts in Iran is limited. Therefore the present investigation was conducted in Guilan province in 2014-2015. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, 450 women with breast cancer and one of their relatives (third-rank) were investigated. At first the phone numbers of patients in Razi Hospital in radiotherapy and chemotherapy and oncology centers of Guilan were taken. Data were collected through telephone interviews by the researcher. The questionnaire had two parts comprising demographic clinical and food frequency data including a list of 40 food items. To analyze the variables, Chi-square test and univariate logistic regression models were used. Results: In each group, 225 subjects were investigated. The majority of samples in both groups of experiment and control were consumed than two glasses of milk and dairy products per day. Regarding consumption of meat and its products, 56% of the cancer group had more than three servings per day while 26.7% of the control group had less than 2 servings per day. The majority of subjects had less than six servings of cereal per day. Some 54. 7 % of the cancer and 62.2 % of the control group consumed less than two servings of fruit per day. Consumption of vegetables in experimental and control groups were 52.9% and 76.9% respectively, more than five servings per day. There was a meaningful difference between two groups regarding the consumption of milk and dairy items (OR=0.6,95%CI= 0.4-0.9), meat and its products (OR=0.49,95%CI=0.3-0.7), bread and cereals (OR=0.4,95%CI=0.2-0.8), vegetables (OR=0.5,95%CI= 0.3-0.9). (P-value<0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study emphasize the importance of informing women, particularly those at higher risk of breast cancer, in relation to dietary factors.


  1. Ahern TP, Tamimi RM, Rosner BA, Hankinson SE (2014). Digoxin use and risk of invasive breast cancer: evidence from the Nurses’ Health Study and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 144, 427-35.
  2. Akbari ME, Khayamzadeh M, Khoshnevis S, Nafisi N, Akbari A (2012). Five and ten years survival in breast cancer patients mastectomies vs. breast conserving surgeries personal experience. Iran J Cancer Prev, 1, 53-56.
  3. Bandala C, De la Garza-Montano P, Cortes-Algara A, et al (2014). Association of histopathological markers with clinico-pathological factors in mexican women with breast cancer. APJCP, 16, 8397-3.
  4. Baneshi MR, Warner P, Anderson N, et al (2012). Can biomarkers improve ability of NPI in risk prediction? a decision tree model analysis. Iran J Cancer Prev, 3, 62-74.
  5. Buck K, Vrieling A, Flesch-Janys D, Chang-Claude J (2011). Dietary patterns and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a German case-control study. Cancer Causes Control, 22, 273-82.
  6. De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Boffetta P, et al (2009). Dietary patterns and risk of cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay. Int J Cancer, 124, 1391-7.
  7. Falahy E, Anbary KH (2012). Food patterns in Iranian adults. J Lorestan University Med Sci, 14, 29-39.
  8. Fouladi N, Amani F, Harghi A, Nayebyazdi N (2011). Five year survival of women with breast cancer in Ardabil, north-west of Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1799-1801.
  9. Haghighat S, Akbari M, Ghaffari S, Yavari P (2012). Standardized breast cancer mortality rate compared to the general female population of Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5525-28.
  10. Haghighy F, Portoghaly P, Ghanbarzade L, Hasany N, mahmmod S (2012). Knowledge, attitude, and practice of female teachers regarding breast cancer screening in Birjand. Modern Care, J Nurs Midwifery, Tehran University Med Sci, 9, 146-55.
  11. Hoda S, Aliy A, Shakiba M, Udi M, Ghasemi M, Pour rasouli Z (2004). Investigate the frequency of cancer in organs province. J Med Guilan University Med Sci, 12, 84-91.
  12. Jung S, Spiegelman D, Baglietto L et al (2013). Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status. J Natl Cancer Inst, 105, 219-36.
  13. Justo N, Wilking N, Jonsson B, LucianiS, Cazap E (2013). A review of breast cancer care and outcomes in Latin America. Oncologist, 18, 248-56.
  14. Karimi Z, Jessri M, Houshiar-Rad A, Mirzaei H, Rashidkhani B (2014). Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women. Public Health Nutrition, 17, 1098-106.
  15. Keihanian S, Ghaffari F, Fotokian Z, Shoormig R, Saravi M (2010). Risk factors of breast cancer in Ramsar and Tonekabon. JQUMS, 14, 12-19.
  16. Kimiagar M, hegazy E (2010). Soy isoflavones and breast cancer risk. J Shahid Beheshti University Med Sci, 2, 52-8.
  17. Kruk J (2014). Association between vegetable, fruit and carbohydrate intake and breast cancer risk in relation to physical activity. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 4429-36.
  18. Linos E, Willett W, Cho E, Frazier L (2010). Adolescent diet in relation to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 19, 689-96.
  19. Mokhtary L, Khorami Markani A (2014). Health beliefs and breast cancer early detection behaviors among health care providers In Tabriz healthcare centers, Iran. Basic Clin Cancer Res, 6, 16-22.
  20. Naghibi A, Shojaeezade D, Montazeri A (2013). Early detection of breast cancer among women in Mazandaran, Iran. Iranian J Health Sci, 1, 44-9.
  21. Nouri T, Molai T, Akbari P, Haghi Z, Mohseni P (2008). Assessment of breast cancer risk using the Gail model. Iranian J Breast Disease, 1, 53-7.
  22. Omranipour R, Karbakhsh M, Behforouz A, et al (2015). Performance of the gail model for breast cancer risk assessment in Iranian Women. Arch Breast Cancer, 2, 27-31.
  23. Pasdar Y, Rezayi M, Darbandy M, Mohamadi N, Niazy P (2014). The pattern of nutritional and food consumption in the city of Kermanshah. J Kerman University Med Sci, 21, 25-36.
  24. Paul S, Solanki P, Shahi U, Srikrishna S (2014). Epidemiological study on breast cancer associated risk factors and screening practices among women in the holy city of varanasi, uttar pradesh, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 8163-71.
  25. Portoghaly FH, Parvane, Ghanbarzade L, Hasany N, Mahmmod S (2012). Knowledge, attitude, and practice of female teachers regarding breast cancer screening in Birjand. Modern Care. J Nurs Midwifery Tehran University Med Sci, 9, 146-155.
  26. Reyhany M,Fahamy F, Moshref Sh,Tarkesh N (2012). Its dairy and animal protein intake with breast cancer in Isfahan. J Med Educat Zanjan, 20, 45-54.
  27. Safaryan M, ShogaezadeM, Ghayur M, et al (2013). Check dietary patterns, healthy nutrition profile and traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults 35 to 65 in Mashhad. J Mashhad University Med Sci, 56, 226-35.
  28. Shrubsole M, Lu W, Chen Z, et al (2009). Drinking green tea modestly reduces breast cancer risk. J Nutr, 139, 310-16.
  29. Tahrgoraby Z, Moadaby M, Mesbahzade B (2014). Breast cancer is a preventable disease. J Birjand University Med Sci, 21, 126-41.
  30. Tehranian N, Hafezpour F, Hagizade E (2009). A study of breast cancer risk in women under 40 years of. Scientific J Research Shahed University, 16, 37-44.
  31. Yaghmaei S, Bani Hashemi G, Ghorbani R (2008). Survival rate following treatment of primary breast cancer in Semnan, Iran (1991-2002). Koomesh, 9, 111-16.
  32. Zare M, Zakiany SH, Rezaii A, Naggare A (2010). Designing and commissioning data recording system in patients with breast cancer. Breast Disease J Iran, 4, 36-41.
  33. Zhang C, Ho S, Fu J, et al (2011). Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among Chinese women. Cancer Causes Control, 22, 115-24.
  34. Zheng J, Hu X, Zhao Y, Yang J, Li D (2013). Intake of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of data from 21 independent prospective cohort studies. BMJ, 346, 1-10.

피인용 문헌

  1. High Serum Essential Amino Acids as a Predictor of Skeletal Muscle Depletion in Patients With Cachexia and Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancers vol.32, pp.5, 2017,
  2. Association between whole grain intake and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies vol.17, pp.1, 2018,
  3. Associations between dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies vol.21, pp.1, 2019,