DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Rural Women's Awareness about Breast Cancer in Southeastern Iran: a Cross-Sectional Study

  • Balouchi, Abbas (Department of Nursing, Nursing and Midwifery School, Zabol University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Shahdadi, Hosien (Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • AlKhasawneh, Esra ;
  • Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani (Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza (Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Sarani, Hamed ;
  • Gorgij, Afsaneh
  • Published : 2016.06.01

Abstract

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. A very important factor in the timely treatment and prevention of progression is high breast cancer awareness. Rural women are at risk of latte stage breast cancer due to poor education and lack of access to medical facilities. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional-descriptive study was conducted on 266 women (out of 300) aged over 18 in rural areas of Zabol, Southeastern Iran during July 2015 to October 2015. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire that measured participant knowledge of breast cancer in four aspects (general awareness, risk factors, mammography, and symptoms). SPSS 22 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 266 participants, age information was available for 261. The age range was between 19 and 62, with a mean of $27{\pm}2.1years$. Most participants (154, 57.9%) had an average overall awareness of breast cancer. In the general awareness dimension, most participants (130, 48.9%) had poor scores. Most (166, 62.4%) also had average awareness about risk factors and many (137, 51.5%) had good awareness about mammography. Most participants did not know that changes in breast shape (232, 88.2%), dimpling of breast skin (192, 72.3%) and nipple discharge (183, 69.6%) are the main symptoms of breast cancer. ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between awareness level and participant education and occupation (P<0.05). Conclusions: This study indicated average awareness of participants about breast cancer. Since rural women have lower levels of education, it is recommended that educational courses with contents about breast cancer, its risk factors, and symptoms be held for these women.

Keywords

Awareness;rural women;breast cancer;risk factors;mammography;Iran

References

  1. Abdulkareem ST (2014). Breast magnetic resonance imaging indications in current practice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 569. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.2.569
  2. Abolfotouh MA, Ala’a AB, Mahfouz AA, et al (2015). Using the health belief model to predict breast self examination among Saudi women. BMC Public Health, 15, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-15-1
  3. Abu-Helalah M, Al-Hanaqta M, Alshraideh H, et al (2014). Quality of life and psychological well-being of breast cancer survivors in Jordan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 5927-36. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.14.5927
  4. Akhigbe AO, Omuemu VO (2009). Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city. BMC Cancer, 9, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-9-1
  5. Azeem E, Gillani SW, Siddiqui A, et al (2015). Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Healthcare Providers towards Breast Cancer in Malaysia: a Systematic Review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 5233-5. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5233
  6. Celik S, Tasdemir N, Sancak H, et al (2014). Breast cancer awareness among Turkish nursing students. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 8941-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.20.8941
  7. Charkazi A, Samimi A, Razzaghi K, et al (2013). Adherence to recommended breast cancer screening in Iranian Turkmen women: the role of knowledge and beliefs. ISRN Prev Med, 2013, 1-8.
  8. Ebrahimi M, Vahdaninia M, Montazeri A (2015). Risk factors for breast cancer in Iran: a case-control study. Breast Cancer Res, 4, 4.
  9. Gadgil A, Sauvaget C, Roy N, et al (2014). Breast cancer awareness among middle class urban women-a communitybased study from mumbai, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 6249-54.
  10. Hadi MA, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, et al (2010). Evaluation of breast cancer awareness among female university students in Malaysia. Pharmacy Practice, 8, 29-34.
  11. Haji-Mahmoodi M, Montazeri A, Jarvandi S, et al (2002). Breast self-examination: knowledge, attitudes, and practices among female health care workers in tehran, Iran. Breast J, 8, 222-5. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1524-4741.2002.08406.x
  12. Harirchi I, Karbakhsh M, Hadi F, et al (2015). Patient delay, diagnosis delay and treatment delay for breast cancer: comparison of the pattern between patients in public and private health sectors. Archives Breast Cancer, 2, 52-7.
  13. Hasan TN, Shah SA, Hassan MR, et al (2015). Poor knowledge and practice towards breast cancer among women in Baghdad City, Iraq. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 6669-72. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6669
  14. Heidari Z, Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb H, Sakhavar N (2008). Breast cancer screening knowledge and practice among women in southeast of Iran.
  15. Jazayeri SB, Saadat S, Ramezani R, et al (2015). Incidence of primary breast cancer in Iran: Ten-year national cancer registry data report. Cancer Epidemiol, 39, 519-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2015.04.016
  16. Jemal A, Center MM, DeSantis C, et al (2010). Global patterns of cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 19, 1893-907. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0437
  17. Kataoka Y, Ohbayashi K, Suzuki K (2015). Outcome evaluation of an educational program for Japanese midwives to promote breast awareness for women. Women Birth, 28, 164-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2015.04.005
  18. Kratzke C, Wilson S, Vilchis H (2013). Reaching rural women: Breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use. J Community Health, 38, 54-61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-012-9579-3
  19. Kwok C, Tranberg R, Lee F (2015). Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors among Indian-Australian women. European J Oncol Nurs, 19, 701-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2015.05.004
  20. Liu L-Y, Wang F, Yu L-X, et al (2014). Breast cancer awareness among women in Eastern China: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 14, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1
  21. Majeed W, Aslam B, Javed I, et al (2014). Breast cancer: major risk factors and recent developments in treatment. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3353-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.8.3353
  22. Mena M, Wiafe-Addai B, Sauvaget C, et al (2014). Evaluation of the impact of a breast cancer awareness program in rural Ghana: A cross-sectional survey. Int J Cancer, 134, 913-24. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28412
  23. Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Harirchi I, et al (2008). Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods. Asia Pac Family Med, 7, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1447-056X-7-1
  24. Naghibi A, Shojaeezade D, Montazeri A (2013). Early detection of breast cancer among women in Mazandaran, Iran.
  25. Parsa P, Kandiah M (2005). Breast cancer knowledge, perception and breast self-examination practices among Iranian women. Int Med J, 4, 17-24.
  26. Poonawalla IB, Goyal S, Mehrotra N, et al (2013). Attitudes of South Asian women to breast health and breast cancer screening: findings from a community based sample in the United States. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 8719-24.
  27. Rastad H, Shokohi L, Dehghani SL, et al (2013). Assessment of the Awareness and Practice of Women vis-à-vis Breast Self-Examination in Fasa in 2011. J Fasa University Med Sci, 3, 75-80.
  28. Ryan AM, Cushen S, Schellekens H, et al (2015). Poor awareness of risk factors for cancer in irish adults: results of a large survey and review of the literature. Oncologist, 20.
  29. Sankaranarayanan R, Alwan N, Denny L (2013). How can we improve survival from breast cancer in developing countries? Breast Cancer Management, 2, 179-83. https://doi.org/10.2217/bmt.13.11
  30. Shiraly R, Asadollahi K, Asadollahi P (2010). Risk perception and preventive issues for breast cancer among female employees. Iranian J Cancer Prev, 3, 166-73.
  31. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2015). Cancer statistics, 2015. CA Cancer J Clin, 65, 5-29. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21254
  32. Tazhibi M, Feizi A (2014). Awareness levels about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and screening and therapeutic approaches among Iranian adult women: a large population based study using latent class analysis. Bio Med research international, 2014.
  33. Tilaki KH, Auladi S (2015). Awareness, attitude, and practice of breast cancer screening women, and the associated sociodemographic characteristics, in Northern Iran. Iranian J Cancer Prev, 8, 3429.

Cited by

  1. A Survey on Breast Cancer Awareness Among Medical, Paramedical, and General Population in North India Using Self-Designed Questionnaire: a Prospective Study pp.0976-6952, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13193-017-0703-9