- Volume 43 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
The importation of genetically modified crops and its environmental impacts in Korea
- Han, Sung Min ;
- Kim, Young Tae ;
- Won, Ok Jae ;
- Choi, Kyung Hwa ;
- Rho, Young Hee ;
- Park, Kee Woong
- Received : 2016.04.08
- Accepted : 2016.05.31
- Published : 2016.06.30
The global cultivation area of genetically modified crops (GM crops) has been increasing every year. Cultivation of GM crops is not only beneficial to the economy but also has positive effects on the environment in decreasing the use of agrochemicals, chemical fertilizers, and agricultural machinery. However, there have been controversies about the admixture of GM crops and non-GM crops and the unintentional release of GM crops to the environment. Especially in Korea, where consumption of agricultural products is import-dependent, the economic importance of GM crops has been a significant issue. The Act on import and distribution of GM crops was established in 2001 to start the management of GM crops in Korea. Recently, the imported amount of GM crops to Korea has reached over 10 million tons and is increasing very rapidly; consequently, the potential environmental impact of GM crops is becoming a big issue in Korea. In Japan, the discovery of imported GM canola plants around ports in 2005 raised awareness of the unintentional release of GM crops. In Korea, GM maize plants were also found in port and feed factory surroundings from 2005 to 2007. It is now necessary to monitor imported GM crops by tracing distribution, transport process for practical environmental risk assessment. Possible gene transfer from GM crops to non-GM crops should also be investigated in the cultivation area and the surroundings as well.
environmental risk assessment;genetically modified crops;monitoring;unintentional release
- Aki M, Yasuyuki Y, Hiroyuki S, Kazuhito M. 2011. Persistence of feral populations of Brassica napus originated from spilled seeds around the Kashima seaport in Japan. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 45:181-185. https://doi.org/10.6090/jarq.45.181
- Brookes G, Barfoot P, Mele E, Messeguer J, Benetrix F. 2004. Genetically modified maize: pollen movement and crop coexistence. pp. 3-20. PG Economics Ltd.
- Cook SK, Wynn SC, Clarke JH. 2010. How valuable is glyphosate to UK agriculture and the environment? Outlooks Pest Management 21:280-284. https://doi.org/10.1564/21dec08
- Devos Y, Reheul D, De Schrijver A. 2005. The co-existence between transgenic and non-transgenic maize in the European Union: A focus on pollen flow and cross-fertilization. Environmental Biosafety Research 4:71-87. https://doi.org/10.1051/ebr:2005013
- EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). 2004. Opinion of the scientific panel on genetically modified organisms on a request from the commission related to the notification (Reference C/NL/98/11) for the placing on the market of herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape GT73, for import and processing, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Monsanto. EFSA Journal 29:1-19.
- Emberlin J, Adams-Groom B, Tidmarsh J. 1999. A report on the dispersal of maize pollen. Soil Association: National Pollen Research Unit, University College Worcester, USA.
- European Commission. 2003. Regulation No 1830/2003 of the European parliament and of the council of 22 September 2003 concerning the traceability and labeling of genetically modified organisms and the traceability of food and feed products produced from genetically modified organisms and amending directive 2001/18/EC. Official Journal of the European Union 268:24-28.
- Brookes G, Barfoot P. 2015. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2013. PG Economics Ltd. Accessed in http://www.pgeconomics.co.uk/pdf/2015globalimpactstudyfinalMay2015.pdf on 31 Sep. 2015.
- James C. 2014. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014. ISAAA (International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications) Briefs No. 49.
- Jones MD, Brooks JS. 1950. Effectiveness of distance and border rows in preventing outcrossing in corn. p. 18. Oklahoma Agricultural Experimental Station, Technical Bulletin T-38.
- Kim CG, Yi H, Park S, Yeon JE, Kim DY, Kim DI. 2006. Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified soybean and maize around cultivated fields and at a grain receiving port in Korea. Journal of Plant Biology 49:218-223. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03030536
- Knispel AL, McLachlan SM. 2010. Landscape-scale distribution and persistence of genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Manitoba, Canada. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 17:13-25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-009-0219-0
- Korea Biosafety Clearing-House. 2015. Current status of LMOs. Accessed in http://www.biosafety.or.kr on 20 Sep. 2015. [in Korean]
- Lee B, Kim CG, Park JY, Park KW, Kim HJ, Yi H. 2009. Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified soybean and maize in cultivated fields and along the transportation routes of the Incheon Port in South Korea. Food Control 20: 250-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2008.05.006
- Meredith GS, Andrew AR, Jason PL, Connie AB, Lee EH. 2011. The establishment of genetically engineered canola populations in the U.S. PLOS ONE 6:e25736. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025736
- Messean A, Squire GR, Perry JN, Angevin F, Gomez-Barbero M. 2009. Sustainable introduction of GM crops into European agriculture: A summary report of the FP6 SIGMEA research project. Journal francais des Oleagineux 16:37-51.
- Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affaires. 2016. Degree of food self-support in Korea. Accessed in http://www.mafra.go.kr/ on 14 Jan. 2016. [in Korean]
- Park KW, Lee B, Kim CG, Kim DY, Park JY. 2010. Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified maize at a grain receiving port and along transportation routes in the Republic of Korea. Food Control 21:456-461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.07.006
- Snow AA, Palma PM. 1997. Commercialization of transgenic plants: Potential ecological risks. BioScience 47:86-96. https://doi.org/10.2307/1313019
- Squire GR, Breckling B, Dietz-Pfeilstetter A, Jorgensen RB, Lecomte J. 2011. Status of feral oilseed rape in Europe: its minor role as a GM impurity and its potential as a reservoir of transgene persistence. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 18:111-115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-010-0376-1
- Treu R, Emberlin J. 2000. Pollen dispersal in the crops maize (Zea mays), oilseed rape (Brassica napus sp. oleifera), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris) and wheat (Triticumaes tivum). Soil Association: National Pollen Research Unit, University College Worcester, USA.
- Assessing weediness of herbicide tolerant genetically modified soybean vol.43, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7744/kjoas.20160057
Supported by : 한국연구재단