Chemical Composition Characteristics of Atmospheric Aerosols in Relation to Haze, Asian Dust and Mixed Haze-Asian Dust Episodes at Gosan Site in 2013

2013년 고산지역 연무, 황사, 연무-황사혼재 대기 에어로졸의 화학조성 특성

  • Ko, Hee-Jung (Environmental Meteorology Research Division, National Institute of Meteorological Sciences) ;
  • Song, Jung-Min (Department of Chemistry and Cosmetics, Jeju National University) ;
  • Cha, Joo Wan (Environmental Meteorology Research Division, National Institute of Meteorological Sciences) ;
  • Kim, Jeongeun (Environmental Meteorology Research Division, National Institute of Meteorological Sciences) ;
  • Ryoo, Sang-Boom (Environmental Meteorology Research Division, National Institute of Meteorological Sciences) ;
  • Kang, Chang-Hee (Department of Chemistry and Cosmetics, Jeju National University)
  • 고희정 (국립기상과학원 환경기상연구과) ;
  • 송정민 (제주대학교 화학.코스메틱스학과) ;
  • 차주완 (국립기상과학원 환경기상연구과) ;
  • 김정은 (국립기상과학원 환경기상연구과) ;
  • 류상범 (국립기상과학원 환경기상연구과) ;
  • 강창희 (제주대학교 화학.코스메틱스학과)
  • Received : 2016.03.22
  • Accepted : 2016.06.02
  • Published : 2016.06.30


The $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ aerosols were collected at the Gosan site of Jeju Island in 2013 and analyzed, in order to examine the variation characteristics of the chemical compositions in relation to the haze, Asian dust, and mixed haze-Asian dust episodes. Volume concentrations obtained from the Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) were high in the range of $0.6{\sim}1.0{\mu}m$ particles for haze event, and in the range of $2.0{\sim}10.0{\mu}m$ particles for Asian dust event. For the haze event, nitrate concentrations increased highly as 8.8 and 25.1 times for $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$, respectively, possibly caused by the inflow of air mass stagnated in eastern parts of China into Jeju area. For the Asian dust event, the concentrations of nss-$Ca^{2+}$, $NO_3{^-}$ and nss-$SO_4{^{2-}}$ increased 6.0, 1.5, 1.8 times for $PM_{10}$, and 2.3, 1.3, 1.6 times for $PM_{2.5}$, respectively. Meanwhile, for the mixed haze-Asian dust event, the concentrations of nss-$Ca^{2+}$ and $NO_3{^-}$ increased 13.4 and 3.2 times for $PM_{10}$, and 1.8 and 3.4 times for $PM_{2.5}$, respectively. The $NH_4NO_3$ content was higher than that of $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ during the haze event, however it was relatively low during the mixed haze-Asian dust event. The aerosols were acidified mostly by inorganic acids, and especially the nitric acid contributed highly to the acidification during both the haze and the mixed haze-Asian dust events. Meanwhile, the neutralization by ammonia was noticeably high during haze event when the stagnated air mass moved from China.


Haze;Asian dust;$PM_{10}$;$PM_{2.5}$;Secondary inorganic aerosol


Supported by : 국립기상과학원, 한국연구재단


  1. Park, S.S., S.A. Jung, B.J. Gong, S.Y. Cho, and S.J. Lee (2013a) Characteristics of $PM_{2.5}$ haze episodes revealed by highly time-resolved measurements at an air pollution monitoring Supersite in Korea, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 13, 957-976.
  2. Park, S.S., S.J. Kim, B.J. Gong, K.H. Lee, S.Y. Cho, J.C. Kim, and S.J. Lee (2013b) Investigation on a Haze Episode of Fine Particulate Matter using Semicontinuous Chemical Composition Data, Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 29(5), 642-655. (in Korean with English abstract)
  3. Robarge, W.P., J.T. Walker, R.B. McCulloch, and G. Murray (2002) Atmospheric concentrations of ammonia at an agricultural site in the southeast United States, Atmospheric Environment, 36(10), 1661-1674.
  4. Rogula-Kozlowska, W., K. Klejnowski, P. Rogula-Kopiec, L. Osrodka, E. Krajny, B. Blaszczak, and B. Mathews (2014). Spatial and seasonal variability of the mass concentration and chemical composition of $PM_{2.5}$ in Poland. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 7(1), 41-58.
  5. Seinfeld, J.H. and S.N. Pandis (1998) Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change, John Wiley & Sons. New York, 530p.
  6. Park, G.H., J.W. Jeong, and J.G. Cho (2012) Evaluation of Pollution Characteristics and Chemical Composition of $PM_{2.5}$ in the Ambient Air of Busan (III), The Annual Report of Busan Metropolitan city Institute of Health & Environment, 22(1), 142-159. (in Korean with English abstract)
  7. Park, S.S., D. Harrison, J.P. Pancras, and J.M. Ondov (2005) Highly time- resolved organic and elemental carbon measurements at the Baltimore Supersite in 2002, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 110(D7), D07S06-1-D07S06-16.
  8. Kim, K.-J., S.-H. Lee, D.-R. Hyeon, H.-J. Ko, W.-H. Kim, and C.-H. Kang (2014) Composition comparison of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ fine particulate matter for Asian dust and haze events of 2010-2011 at Gosan site in Jeju Island, Analytical Science & Technology, 27(1), 1-10. (in Korean with English abstract)
  9. Kim Oanh, N.T., C. Piromyaporn, and W.S. Ekbordin (2005) Meteorological pattern classification and application for forecasting air pollution episode potential in a mountain-valley area, Atmospheric Environment, 39, 1211-1225.
  10. Koutrakis, P., K.M. Thompson, J.M. Wolfson, J.D. Spengler, G.J. Keeler, and J.L. Slater (1992) Determination of aerosol strong acidity losses due to interactions of collected particles: Results from laboratory and field studies, Atmospheric Environment, 26(6), 987-995.
  11. Lee, J.G. (1993) Synoptic analyses of the yellow sand events observed over the Korean peninsula during 22-24 April, 1993, Journal of the Environmental Sciences, 2(3), 161-177.
  12. Lee, S., S.W. Kim, and S.-C. Yoon (2012) Estimation of the Light Absorption Contribution for Asian Dust and Polluted Particles at Gosan, Jeju during the Asian Dust Episode in the Spring 2011, Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 28(4), 411-422. (in Korean with English abstract)
  13. Lee, Y.-J., S.-A. Jung, M.-R. Jo, S.-J. Kim, M.-K. Park, J.-Y. Ahn, Y.-S. Lyu, W.-J. Choi, Y.-d. Hong, J.-S. Han, and J.-H. Lim (2014) Characteristics of PM Chemical Component during Haze Episode and Asian Dust at Gwang-ju, Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 30(5), 434-448. (in Korean with English abstract)
  14. Mainey, A. and T. William (1999) Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Compounds in Ambient Air: (Chapter IO-3) Chemical Species Analysis of Filter-Collected Suspended Particulate Matter, US Environmental Protection Agency EPA/625/R-96/010a.
  15. Mori, I., M. Nishikawa, T. Tanimura, and H. Quan (2003) Change in size distribution and chemical composition of kosa (Asian dust) aerosol during long-range transport, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 4253-4263.
  16. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2008) Research on the current status of Asian Dust from Mongolia and countermeasures, 189pp. (in Korean)
  17. National Institute of Meterological Sciences (NIMS) (2015) Yellow sand and Haze occurrence case analysis source book, 184pp. (in Korean)
  18. Akpoa, A.B., C. Galy-Lacaux, D. Laouali, C. Delon, C. Liousse, M. Adon, E. Gardrat, A. Mariscal, and C. Darakpa (2015) Precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote wet savanna site in West Africa: Djougou (Benin), Atmospheric Environment, 115, 110-123.
  19. Cao, J.J., J.C. Chow, J.G. Watson, F. Wu, Y.M. Han, Z.D. Jin, source profiles for fugitive dust in the Chinese Loess Plateau, Atmospheric Environment, 42, 2261-2275.
  20. Cao, J.J., Z.X. Shen, J.C. Chow, G.W. Qi, and J.G. Watson (2009) Seasonal variations and Sources of mass and chemical composition for $PM_{10}$ aerosol in Hangzhou, China, Particuology, 7, 161-168.
  21. Chun, Y., S. Park, K.O. Boo, J. Kim, and M. Lee (2001) Synopsis, Transport, and physical characteristics of Asian dust in Korea, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 106(D16), 18461-18469.
  22. Curtis, D.B., B. Meland, M. Aycibin, N.P. Arnold, V.H. Grassian, M.A. Young, and P.D. Kleiber (2008) A laboratory investigation of light scattering from representative components of mineral dust aerosol at a wavelength of 550 nm, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D8), D08210-1-D08210-15.
  23. Eguchi, K., I. Uno, K. Yumimoto, T. Takemura, A. Shimizu, N. Sugimoto, and Z. Liu (2009). Trans-pacific dust transport: integrated analysis of NASA/CALIPSO and a global aerosol transport model, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9(9), 3137-3145.
  24. Ghim, Y.S. (2011) Impacts of Asian Dust on Atmospheric Environment, Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 27(3), 255-271. (in Korean with English abstract)
  25. Hyeon, D.R., J.M. Song, K.J. Kim, W.H. Kim, C.H. Kang, and H.J. Ko (2014) Compositions of haze aerosols and their variation by inflow pathway of air mass at Gosan site in Jeju Island during 2012-2013, Analytical Science & Technology, 27(4), 213-222.
  26. Hobbs, P.V. (2000) Introduction to atmospheric chemistry, Cambridge Univ. Press, 262pp.
  27. Jo, H.-Y. and C.-H. Kim (2010) Characteristics of East Asia synoptic meteorological conditions in association with haze phenomena, Atmosphere, 20, 161-172. (in Korean with English abstract)
  28. Jo, H.-Y. and C.-H. Kim (2011), Characteristics of Air Quality over Korean Urban Area due to the Long-range Transport Haze Events, Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 27(1), 73-86. (in Korean with English abstract)
  29. Jung, J. and Y.J. Kim (2011) Tracking sources of severe haze episodes and their physicochemical and hygroscopic properties under Asian continental outflow: Longrange transport pollution, post-harvest biomass burning, and Asian dust, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 116(D2), D02212-1-D02212-15.
  30. Kang, C.H., W.H. Kim, H.J. Ko, and S.B. Hong (2009) Asian Dust effect on Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) compositions at Gosan in Jeju Island, Korea, Atmospheres Research, 94(2), 345-355.
  31. Kim, D.-R., J.-S. Kim, and S.-J. Ban (2010) A Study on the Characteristics of Soil in the Asian Dust Source Regions of Mongolia, Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 26(6), 606-615. (in Korean with English abstract)
  32. Shen, Z., J. Cao, R. Arimoto, Z. Han, R. Zhang, Y. Han, S. Liu, T. Okuda, S. Nakao, and S. Tanaka (2009). Ionic composition of TSP and $PM_{2.5}$ during dust storms and air pollution episodes at Xi'an, China, Atmospheric Environment, 43, 2911-2918.
  33. Song, S., J.E. Kim, E. Lim, J.-W. Cha, and J. Kim (2015) Physical, Chemical and Optical Properties of an Asian Dust and Haze Episodes Observed at Seoul in 2010, Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 31(2), 131-142. (in Korean with English abstract)
  34. Sun, Z., Y. Mu, Y. Liu, and L. Shao (2013) A comparison study on airborne particles during haze days and non-haze days in Beijing, Science of total Environment, 456, 1-8.
  35. United Nation Environment Programme (UNEP) (2002) The Asian Brown Cloud: Climate and Other Environmental impacts, UNEP RRC.AP, 49pp.
  36. Uno, I., K. Eguchi, K. Yumimoto, T. Takemura, A. Shimizu, M. Uematsu, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Hara, and N. Sugimoto (2009). Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe, Nature Geoscience, 2(8), 557-560.
  37. Zhang, D. and Y. Iwasaka (1999) Nitrate and sulfate in individual Asian dust-storm particles in Beijing, China in spring of 1995 and 1996, Atmospheric Environment, 33, 3212-3233.

Cited by

  1. Analysis of Aerosol Optical Properties for High Particulate Matters and Light Asian Dust in Seoul Using GOCI vol.33, pp.3, 2017,
  2. Estimations of the Optical Properties and Direct Radiative Forcing of Aerosol Chemical Components in PM2.5 Measured at Aewol Intensive Air Monitoring Site on Jeju Island vol.33, pp.5, 2017,
  3. Comparison of PM2.5 Concentrations by Measurement Method vol.33, pp.5, 2017,