Enhanced Production of Phenolic Compounds from Pumpkin Leaves by Subcritical Water Hydrolysis

  • Ko, Jeong-Yeon (Department of Food Bioengineering, Jeju National University) ;
  • Ko, Mi-Ok (Department of Food Bioengineering, Jeju National University) ;
  • Kim, Dong-Shin (Department of Food Bioengineering, Jeju National University) ;
  • Lim, Sang-Bin (Department of Food Bioengineering, Jeju National University)
  • Received : 2016.02.03
  • Accepted : 2016.04.21
  • Published : 2016.06.30


Enhanced production of individual phenolic compounds by subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) of pumpkin leaves was investigated at various temperatures ranging from 100 to $220^{\circ}C$ at 20 min and at various reaction times ranging from 10 to 50 min at $160^{\circ}C$. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and gentisic acid were the major phenolic compounds in the hydrolysate of pumpkin leaves. All phenolic compounds except gentisic acid showed the highest yield at $160^{\circ}C$, but gentisic acid showed the highest yield at $180^{\circ}C$. The cumulative amount of individual phenolic compounds gradually increased by 48.1, 52.2, and $78.4{\mu}g/g$ dry matter at $100^{\circ}C$, $120^{\circ}C$, and $140^{\circ}C$, respectively, and then greatly increased by $1,477.1{\mu}g/g$ dry matter at $160^{\circ}C$. The yields of caffeic acid and ferulic acid showed peaks at 20 min, while those of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and procatechuic acid showed peaks at 30 min. Antioxidant activities such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power values gradually increased with hydrolysis temperature and ranged from 6.77 to 12.42 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g dry matter and from 4.25 to 8.92 mmol $Fe^{2+}$/100 g dry matter, respectively. Color $L^*$ and $b^*$ values gradually decreased as hydrolysis temperature increased from $100^{\circ}C$ to $140^{\circ}C$. At high temperatures ($160^{\circ}C$ to $220^{\circ}C$), L* and b* values decreased suddenly. The $a^*$ value peaked at $160^{\circ}C$ and then decreased as temperature increased from $160^{\circ}C$ to $220^{\circ}C$. These results suggest that SWH of pumpkin leaves was strongly influenced by hydrolysis temperature and may enhanced the production of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities.


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