Effect of High Temperature and High Pressure on Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Korean Red Ginseng

고온고압 처리가 홍삼의 이화학적 특성 및 항산화 효과에 미치는 영향

  • Kim, Eunyoung (Traditional Food Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Jin, Yan (Traditional Food Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Kim, Kyung-Tack (Traditional Food Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Lim, Tae-Gyu (Traditional Food Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Jang, Mi (Traditional Food Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Cho, Chang-Won (Traditional Food Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Rhee, Young Kyoung (Traditional Food Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Hong, Hee-Do (Traditional Food Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute)
  • 김은영 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구센터) ;
  • 김염 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구센터) ;
  • 김경탁 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구센터) ;
  • 임태규 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구센터) ;
  • 장미 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구센터) ;
  • 조장원 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구센터) ;
  • 이영경 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구센터) ;
  • 홍희도 (한국식품연구원 전통식품연구센터)
  • Received : 2016.04.21
  • Accepted : 2016.06.23
  • Published : 2016.06.30


This study was conducted in order to investigate the physiochemical properties and antioxidative activity of red ginseng manufactured using the high temperature high pressure (HTHP) process, which is faster and simpler than the conventional process. According to increasing the steaming temperature, pressure and time, the content of minor non-polar ginsenosides, such as Rg3, Rk3, Rh4, Rk1 and Rg5 gradually increased. Also, the contents of acidic polysaccharide, total phenolic compounds and maltol gradually increased. Based on the results of the physiochemical properties and appearance quality, the optimum conditions of HTHP process were estimated as $140^{\circ}C$, $3kg/cm^2$ in 20 min. The total phenolic compounds and maltol contents of the HTHP process red ginseng (1.0% and 2.49 mg%, respectively) were higher than those of conventional red ginseng (0.23% and 0.60 mg%, respectively). In addition, the antioxidative activity was investigated using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-aziono-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging activity. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of HTHP process red ginseng increased by 3.4 and 3.6 folds, respectively, compared with conventional red ginseng. In addition, total phenolic compounds and maltol contents, as well as the antioxidant activity of the HTHP process red ginseng were similar to black ginseng. The present results suggest that the HTHP process is available for the development of value-added red ginseng products.


Grant : 식품 품질관리

Supported by : 한국식품연구원


  1. Berg R, Haenen GR, Berg H, Bast A. 1999. Applicability of an improved Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay for evaluation of antioxidant capacity measurements of mixtures. Food Chem 66:511-517
  2. Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use a stable free radical. Nature 181:1199-1200
  3. Choi CS, Kim KI, Hong HD, Choi SY, Lee YC, Kim KT, Rho J, Kim SS, Kim YC. 2006. Phenolic acid composition and antioxidative activity of white ginseng (Panax ginseng, C.A. Meyer). J Ginseng Res 30:22-30
  4. Choi Y, Lee SM, Chun J, Lee HB, Lee J. 2005. Influence of heat treatment on the antioxidant activities and poly phenolic compounds of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushroom. Food Chem 99:381-387
  5. Court WE. 2000. Ginseng: The Geneus Panax. Harwooed Academic publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands pp.23-39
  6. Dewanto V, Wu X, Adom KK, Liu RH. 2002a. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 50:3010-3014
  7. Dewanto V, Xianzhong W, Liu RH. 2002b. Processed sweet corn has higher antioxidant activitiy. J Agric Food Chem 50:4959-4964
  8. Do JH, Lee HO, Lee SK, Jang JK, Lee SD, Sung HS. 1993. Colorimetric determination of acidic polysaccharide from Panax ginseng, its extraction condition and stability. Korean J Ginseng Sci 17:139-144
  9. Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Robers PA, Smith F. 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugar and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350-356
  10. Hong HD, Kim YC, Rho J, Kim KT, Lee YC. 2007. Changes on physicochemical properties of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer during repeated steaming process. J Ginseng Res 31:222-229
  11. Hwang IG, Woo KS, Kim TM, Kim DJ, Yang MH, Jeong HS. 2006. Change of physicochemical characteristics of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) juice with heat treatment conditions. Korean J Food Sci Technol 38:342-347
  12. Jeong SM, Kim SY, Kim DR, Jo SC, Nam KC, Ahn DU, Lee SC. 2004. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from cirtus peels. J Agric Food Chem 52:3389-3393
  13. Jo HK, Sung MC, Ko SK. 2011. The comparison of ginseng prosapogenin composition and contents in red and black ginseng. Kor J Pharmacogn 42:361-365
  14. Kim EK, Lee JH, Cho SH, Sen GN, Jin LG, Myung CS, Oh HJ, Kim DH, Yun JD, Roh SS, Park YJ, Seo YB, Song GY. 2008. Preparation of black ginseng by new methods and its antitumor activity. Kor J Herbology 23:85-92
  15. Kim WY, Kim JM, Han SB, Lee SK, Kim ND, Park MK, Kim CK, Park JH. 2000. Steaming of ginseng at high temperature enhances bilogical activity. J Nat Prod 63:1702-1704
  16. Kwak YS, Choi KH, Kyung JS, Won JY, Rhee MH, Lee JG, Hwang MS, Kim SC, Park CK, Song KB, Han GH. 2008. Effect of high temperature heating on the some physicochemical properties of Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) water extract. J Ginseng Res 32:120-126
  17. Kwon OC. Woo KS, Kim TM, Kim DJ, Hong HT, Jeong HS. 2006. Physicochemical characteristics of garlic (Allium satiuum L.) on the high temperature and pressure treatment. Korean J Food Sci Technol 38:331-336
  18. Lee JH, Shen GN, Kim EK, Shin HJ, Myung CS, Oh HJ, Kim DH, Roh SS, Cho W, Seo YB, Park YJ, Kang CW, Song GY. 2006a. Preparation of black ginseng and its antitumor activity. Korean J Oriental Physiology & Pathology 20:951-956
  19. Lee SJ, Park DW, Jang HG, Kim CY, Park YS, Kim TC, Heo BG. 2006b. Total phenol content, electron donating ability and tyrosinase inhibition activity of pear cut branch extract. Kor J Hort Sci Technol 24:338-342
  20. Nam KY, Ko SR, Choi KJ. 1999. Relationship of saponin and non-saponin for the quality of ginseng. J Ginseng Res 26: 17-25
  21. Nam KY, Lee NR, Moon BD, Song GY, Shin HS, Choi JE. 2012. Changes of ginsenosides and color from black ginsengs prepared by steaming-drying cycles. Korean J Medicinal Crop 20:27-35
  22. Park CK, Jeon BS, Yang JW. 2003. The chemical components of Korean ginseng. Korean J Food Industry Nutr 8:10-23
  23. Park JD. 1996. Recent studies on the chemical constituents of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). Korean J Ginseng Sci 20:389-415
  24. Park JH. 2004. Sun ginseng - A new processed ginseng with fortified activity. Food Ind Nutr 9:23-27
  25. Singleton VL, Rossi JA. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolic with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstric acid reagent. Am J Enol Vitic 16:144-158
  26. Woo KS, Hang KI, Kim KY, Lee HB, Jeong HS. 2006. Antioxidative activity of heat treated licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) extracts. Korean J Food Sci Technol 38: 355-360
  27. Yang SJ, Woo KS, Yoo JS, Kang TS, Noh YH, Lee J, Jeong HS. 2006. Change of Korean ginseng components with high temperature and pressure treatment. Korean J Food Sci Technol 38:521-525
  28. Yoon BR, Lee YJ, Hong HD, Lee YC, Kim YC, Rhee YK, Kim KT, Lee OH. 2012. Inhibitory effects of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer treated with high temperature and high pressure on oxidative stress. Korean J Food Nutr 25:800-806

Cited by

  1. Bioconversion, health benefits, and application of ginseng and red ginseng in dairy products vol.26, pp.5, 2017,