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Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Clostridium perfringens in Natural and Processed Cheeses

  • Lee, Heeyoung (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University) ;
  • Lee, Soomin (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University) ;
  • Kim, Sejeong (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University) ;
  • Lee, Jeeyeon (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University) ;
  • Ha, Jimyeong (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University) ;
  • Yoon, Yohan (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University)
  • Received : 2015.12.09
  • Accepted : 2016.02.10
  • Published : 2016.08.01

Abstract

This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model ($r=1.82{\times}10^{-11}$) was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were $12.40{\pm}19.43g$ and $19.46{\pm}14.39g$, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g) and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g) were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (${\alpha}1=1$, ${\alpha}2=91$; ${\alpha}1=1$, ${\alpha}2=309$)${\times}$uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8) to be -2.35 and -2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were $9.57{\times}10^{-14}$ and $3.58{\times}10^{-14}$, respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by consumption cheese is low, and it can be used to establish microbial criteria for C. perfringens on natural and processed cheeses.

Keywords

Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment;Clostridium perfringens;Cheese

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Ministry of Food and Drug Safety

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