- Volume 29 Issue 8
DOI QR Code
Effects of Nitrogen Application Rate on the Yields, Nutritive Value and Silage Fermentation Quality of Whole-crop Wheat
- Li, C.J. (Department of Grassland Science, South China Agricultural University) ;
- Xu, Z.H. (Department of Grassland Science, South China Agricultural University) ;
- Dong, Z.X. (Department of Grassland Science, South China Agricultural University) ;
- Shi, S.L. (Pratacultural College, Gansu Agricultural University) ;
- Zhang, J.G. (Department of Grassland Science, South China Agricultural University)
- Received : 2015.09.03
- Accepted : 2015.12.08
- Published : 2016.08.01
Whole-crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as forage has been extensively used in the world. In this study, the effects of N application rates on the yields, nutritive value and silage quality were investigated. The N application rates were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 kg/ha. The research results indicated that the dry matter yield of whole-crop wheat increased significantly with increasing N rate up to 150 kg/ha, and then leveled off. The crude protein content and in vitro dry matter digestibility of whole-crop wheat increased significantly with increasing N up to 225 kg/ha, while they no longer increased at N 300 kg/ha. On the contrary, the content of various fibers tended to decrease with the increase of N application. The content of lactic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid in silages increased with the increase of N rate (p<0.05). The ammonia-N content of silages with higher N application rates (
- Novozamsky, I., E. R. Van, J. C. Van, Schouwenburg, and I. Walinga. 1974. Total nitrogen determination in plant material by means of the indophenol-blue method. Netherland J. Agric. Sci. 22:3-5.
- Phipps, R. H., J. D. Sutton, and B. A. Jones. 1995. Forage mixtures for dairy cows: the effect on dry-matter intake and milk production of incorporating either fermented or urea treated whole-crop wheat, brewers grains, fodder beet or maize silage into diets based on grass silage. Anim. Sci. 61:491-496. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800014053
- Playne, M. J. and P. McDonald. 1966. The buffering constituents of herbage and of silage. J. Sci. Food Agric.17:264-268. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740170609
- Rohweder, D. A., R. F. Barnes, and N. Jorgensen. 1978. Proposed hay grading standards based on laboratory analyses for evaluating quality. J. Anim. Sci. 47:747-759. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1978.473747x
- Spoelstra, S. F. 1983. Inhibition of clostridial growth by nitrate during the early phase of silage fermentation. J. Sci. Food Agric.34:145-152. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740340206
- Sidhu, P. K., G. K. Bedi, Meenakshi, V. Mahajan, S. Sharma, K. S. Sandhuand, and M. P. Gupta. 2011. Evaluation of factors contributing to excessive nitrate accumulation in fodder crops leading to ill-health in dairy animals. Toxicol. Int. 18:22-26. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.75848
- Succi, G., G. M. Crovetto, A. Tamburini, L. Rapetti, and G. Galassi. 1993. Determination of the net energy of wheat silage cut at the dough maturity stage of grain. In: Proceedings of 47th National Meeting of the Italian Veterinary Sciences. Milan, Italy. pp.1733-1737.
- Tilley, J. M. A. and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Grass Forage Sci. 18:104-111. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1963.tb00335.x
- Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
- Weinberg, Z. G., A. Bar-Tal, Y. Chen, M. Gamburg, S. Brener, L. Dvash, T. Markovitz, and S. Landau. 2007. The effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on the ensiling of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 134:152-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.05.009
- Weinberg, Z. G., Y. Chen, and R. Solomon. 2009. The quality of commercial wheat silages in Israel. J. Dairy Sci. 92:638-644. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1120
- Murphy, R. P. 1958. A method for the extraction of plant samples and the determination of total soluble carbohydrates. J. Sci. Food Agric. 9:714-717. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740091104
- Namihira, T., N. Shinzato, H. Akamine, I. Nakamura, H. Maekawa, Y. Kawamoto, and T. Matsui. 2011. The effect of nitrogen fertilization to the sward on guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Gatton) silage fermentation. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 24:358-363.
- Ben-Ghedalia, D., A. Halevi, and J. Miron. 1995. Digestibility by dairy cows of monosaccharide components in diets containing wheat or ryegrass silages. J. Dairy Sci. 78:134-140. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76623-1
- Chai, R. S., Y. F. Niu, L. D. Huang, L. J. Liu, H. Wang, L. S. Wu, and Y. S. Zhang. 2013. Mitigation potential of greenhouse gases under different scenarios of optimal synthetic nitrogen application rate for grain crops in China. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 96:15-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-013-9574-9
- Crovetto, G. M., A. Tamburini, L. Rapetti, G. Galassiand, and G. Succi. 1996. Nutritive value of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage: comparison between double and unique cut.Zoot. Nutr. Anim. 22:59-67.
- Filya, I. 2003. Nutritive value of whole crop wheat silage harvested at three stages of maturity. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 103:85-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00284-5
- Foulkes, M. J., R. Sylvester-Bradley, and R. K. Scott. 1998. Evidence for differences between winter wheat cultivars in acquisition of soil mineral nitrogen and uptake and utilization of applied fertilizer nitrogen. J. Agric. Sci. 130:29-44. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859697005029
- Ghanbari-Bonjar, A. and H. C. Lee. 2002. Intercropped field beans (Vicia faba) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) for whole crop forage: effect of nitrogen on forage yield and quality. J. Agric. Sci. 138:311-315.
- Islam, M. R., S. C. Garcia, and A. Horadagoda. 2012. Effects of irrigation and rates and timing of nitrogen fertilizer on dry matter yield, proportions of plant fractions of maize and nutritive value and in vitro gas production characteristics of whole crop maize silage. Anim. Feed Sci. Technnol. 172:125-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.11.013
- Keady, T. W. J. and O. P'Kiely. 1996. An evaluation of the effects of rate of nitrogen fertilization of grassland on silage fermentation, in-silo losses, effluent production and aerobic stability. Grass Forage Sci. 51:350-362. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1996.tb02070.x
- Khorasani, G. R., P. E. Jedel, J. H. Helm, and J. J. Kennelly. 1997. Influence of stage of maturity on yield components and chemical composition of cereal grain silages. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 77:259-267. https://doi.org/10.4141/A96-034
- Lv, W. X., Y. Ge, J. Z. Wu, and J. Chang. 2004. Study on the method for the determination of nitric nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen and total nitrogen in plant. Spectrosc. Spect. Anal. 24:204-206.
- AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
- Ashbell, G. and D. Sklan. 1985. Winter wheat for silage: a double-cropping system for use in subtropical climate. Feedstuffs 57:18-19.
- McDonald, P., A. R. Henderson, and J. E. Heron. 1991. The Biochemistry of Silage. Chalcombe Publications, Marlow, UK. pp. 9-166.
- Moon, N. J. 1983. Inhibition of the growth of acid tolerant yeasts by acetate, lactate and propionate and their synergistic mixtures. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 55:453-460. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1983.tb01685.x
- Morrison, I. M. 1979. Changes in cell wall components of laboratory silages and the effect of various additives on these changes. J. Agric. Sci. 93:581-586. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600038983