Effects of Condensed Tannins in Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.) Seed Meal on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Nitrogen Utilization in Goats

  • Gunun, P. ;
  • Wanapat, M. ;
  • Gunun, N. ;
  • Cherdthong, A. ;
  • Sirilaophaisan, S. ;
  • Kaewwongsa, W.
  • Received : 2015.07.04
  • Accepted : 2015.10.19
  • Published : 2016.08.01


Mao seed is a by-product of the wine and juice industry, which could be used in animal nutrition. The current study was designed to determine the effect of supplementation of mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.) seed meal (MOSM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on rumen fermentation, nitrogen (N) utilization and microbial protein synthesis in goats. Four crossbred (Thai Native${\times}$Anglo Nubian) goats with initial body weight (BW) $20{\pm}2kg$ were randomly assigned to a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were MOSM supplementation at 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 2.4% of total dry matter (DM) intake, respectively. During the experimental periods, all goats were fed a diet containing roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 at 3.0% BW/d and pangola grass hay was used as a roughage source. Results showed that supplementation with MOSM did not affect feed intake, nutrient intakes and apparent nutrient digestibility (p>0.05). In addition, ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) were not influenced by MOSM supplementation, whilst blood urea nitrogen was decreased quadraticly (p<0.05) in goats supplemented with MOSM at 2.4% of total DM intake. Propionate was increased linearly with MOSM supplementation, whereas acetate and butyrate were remained the same. Moreover, estimated ruminal methane ($CH_4$) was decreased linearly (p<0.05) when goats were fed with MOSM at 1.6% and 2.4% of total DM intake. Numbers of bacteria and protozoa were similar among treatments (p>0.05). There were linear decreases in urinary N (p<0.01) and total N excretion (p<0.01) by MOSM supplementation. Furthermore, N retention was increased linearly (p<0.05) when goats were fed with MOSM supplementation at 1.6% and 2.4% of total DM intake. Microbial protein synthesis were not significantly different among treatments (p>0.05). From the current study, it can be concluded that supplementation of MOSM at 1.6% to 2.4% of total DM intake can be used to modify ruminal fermentation, especially propionate and N utilization in goats, without affecting the nutrient digestibility, microbial populations and microbial protein synthesis.


Mao Seed Meal;Goats;Rumen Fermentation;Nitrogen Utilization;Microbial Protein Synthesis


  1. Animut, G., R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, A. K. Patra, T. Sahlu, V. H. Varel, and J. Wells. 2008. Methane emission by goats consuming different sources of condensed tannins. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 144:228-241.
  2. AOAC. 1995. Official Method of Analysis, 16th ed. Animal Feeds: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
  3. Beauchemin, K. A., M. Kreuzer, F. O'Mara, and T. A. McAllister. 2008. Nutritional management for enteric methane abatement: a review.Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 48:21-27.
  4. Burns, R. E. 1971. Method for estimation of tannin in the grain sorghum. Agron. J. 63:511-512.
  5. Chen, X. B. and M. J. Gomes. 1995. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivative-an overview of the technique details. Occasional Publication 1992. International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, UK.
  6. Chen, X. B., F. D. DeB. Hovell, E. R. Orskov, and D. S. Brown. 1990. Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants: effect of exogenous nucleic acid supply on purine derivative excretion by sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 63:131-142.
  7. Chen, X. B., D. J. Kyle, and E. R. Orskov. 1993. Measurement of allantoin in urine and plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 617:241-247.
  8. Crocker, C. L. 1967. Rapid determination of urea nitrogen in serum or plasma without deproteinization. Am. J. Med. Technol. 33:361-365.
  9. Dentinho, M. T. P., A. T. Belo, and R. J. B. Bessa. 2014. Digestion, ruminal fermentation and microbial nitrogen supply in sheep fed soybean meal treated with Cistus ladanifer L. tannins. Small Rumin. Res. 119:57-64.
  10. Dey, A., N. Dutta, K. Sharma, and A. K. Pattanaik. 2008. Effect of dietary inclusion of Ficus infectoria leaves as a protectant of proteins on the performance of lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 75:105-114.
  11. Galyean, M. 1989. Laboratory Procedure in Animal Nutrition Research. Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock TX, USA.
  12. Gunun, P., M. Wanapat, and N. Anantasook. 2013. Rumen fermentation and performance of lactating dairy cows affected by physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 26:1295-1303.
  13. Gunun, P., N. Anantasook, M. Wanapat, S. Sirilaophaisan, A. Cherdthong, C. Wachirapakorn, and C. Yuangklang. 2014. Effect of Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Mull. Arg.) seed supplementation on in vitro rumen protozoal population and digestibility using a gas production technique. Khon Kaen Agr. J. 42(Suppl. 4):47-53.
  14. Hernandez, P., A. Z. M. Salem, S. Lopez, X. Z. Sun, R. Rojo, L. M. Camacho, M. M. Y. Elghandour, and M. Gonzalez-Ronquillo. 2014. Influence of Salix babylonica and Leucaena Leucocephala leaf extracts on ruminal fermentation characteristics, urinary purine derivative excretion and microbial protein synthesis. Livest. Sci. 163:80-84.
  15. Hristov, A. N. and J. -P. Jouany. 2005. Factors affecting the efficiency of nitrogen utilization in the rumen. In: Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrition of Cattle: Reducing the Environmental Impact of Cattle Operations (Eds. E. Pfeffer and A. N. Hristov) CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pp. 117-166.
  16. Jayanegara, A., N. Togtokhbayar, H. P. S. Makkar, and K. Becker. 2009. Tannins determined by various methods as predictors of methane production reduction potential of plants by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 150:230-237.
  17. Kwon, J. H., J. M. R. Belanger, J. R. J. Pare, and V. A. Yaylayan. 2003. Application of the microwave-assisted process (MAPTM) to the fast excretion of ginseng saponins. Food Res. Int. 36:491-498.
  18. Landau, S., N. Silanikove, Z. Nitsan, D. Barkai, H. Baram, F. D. Provenza, and A. Perevolotsky. 2000. Short-term changes in eating patterns explain the effects of condensed tannins on feed intake in heifers. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 69:199-213.
  19. Makkar, H. P. S. 2003. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin rich feeds. Small Rumin. Res. 49:241-256.
  20. Moss, A. R., J. P. Jouany, and J. Newbold. 2000. Methane production by ruminants: its contribution to global warming. Anim. Res. 49:231-253.
  21. Mueller-Harvey, I. 2006. Unravelling the conundrum of tannins in animal nutrition and health. J. Sci. Food Agric. 86:2010-2037.
  22. Pathak, A. K., N. Dutta, P. S. Banerjee, A. K. Pattanaik, and K. Sharma. 2013. Influence of dietary supplementation of condensed tannins through leaf meal mixture on intake, nutrient utilization and performance of Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 26:1446-1458.
  23. Patra, A. K. and J. Saxena. 2011. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition. J. Sci. Food Agric. 91:24-37.
  24. Poungchompu, O., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn, S. Wanapat, and A. Cherdthong. 2009. Manipulation of ruminal fermentation and methane production by dietary saponins and tannins from mangosteen peel and soapberry fruit. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 63:389-400.
  25. Samuel, M., S. Sagathewan, J. Thomus, and G. Mathen. 1997. An HPLC method for estimation of volatile fatty acids of rumen fluid. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 67:805-807.
  26. SAS. 1996. User's Guide: Statistic, Version 5. edn. SAS. Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
  27. Soltan, Y. A., A. S. Morsy, S. M. Sallam, R. C. Lucas, H. Louvandini, M. Kreuzer, and A. L. Abdalla. 2013. Contribution of condensed tannins and mimosine to the methane mitigation caused by feeding Leucaena leucocephala. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 67:169-184.
  28. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Method for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharide in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  29. Wanapat, M. and O. Pimpa. 1999. Effect of ruminal $NH_3-N$ levels on ruminal fermentation, purine derivatives, digestibility and rice straw intake in swamp buffaloes. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 12:904-907.
  30. Wanapat, M., V. Chanthakhoun, K. Phesatcha, and S. Kang. 2014. Influence of mangosteen peel powder as a source of plant secondary compounds on rumen microorganisms, volatile fatty acids, methane and microbial protein synthesis. Livest. Sci. 162:126-133.

Cited by

  1. Use of Asian selected agricultural byproducts to modulate rumen microbes and fermentation vol.7, pp.1, 2016,
  2. Performance and Economic Evaluation of Broilers Fed Varying Dietary Levels of Mao Pomace vol.12, pp.6, 2017,
  3. Natural Phenol Polymers: Recent Advances in Food and Health Applications vol.6, pp.2, 2017,
  4. rumen fermentation and methane production as affected by rambutan peel powder pp.0974-1844, 2017,
  5. Effect of condensed tannins from Leucaena leucocephala on rumen fermentation, methane production and population of rumen protozoa in heifers fed low-quality forage vol.31, pp.11, 2018,