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Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Ovarian Function and Their Importance in Mammalian Female Fertility - A Review

  • Castro, Fernanda Cavallari de (Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of Sao Paulo) ;
  • Cruz, Maria Helena Coelho (Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of Sao Paulo) ;
  • Leal, Claudia Lima Verde (Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of Sao Paulo)
  • Received : 2015.09.24
  • Accepted : 2015.12.23
  • Published : 2016.08.01

Abstract

Growth factors play an important role during early ovarian development and folliculogenesis, since they regulate the migration of germ cells to the gonadal ridge. They also act on follicle recruitment, proliferation/atresia of granulosa cells and theca, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and luteinization. Among the growth factors, the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-${\beta}$) superfamily, have been implicated as essential for follicular development. The GDF9 and BMP15 participate in the evolution of the primordial follicle to primary follicle and play an important role in the later stages of follicular development and maturation, increasing the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, plasminogen activator and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). These factors are also involved in the interconnections between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells, where they regulate absorption of amino acids, glycolysis and biosynthesis of cholesterol cumulus cells. Even though the mode of action has not been fully established, in vitro observations indicate that the factors GDF9 and BMP15 stimulate the growth of ovarian follicles and proliferation of cumulus cells through the induction of mitosis in cells and granulosa and theca expression of genes linked to follicular maturation. Thus, seeking greater understanding of the action of these growth factors on the development of oocytes, the role of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian function is summarized in this brief review.

Keywords

Cumulus Cells;Granulosa Cells;Oocyte Maturation;Follicular Development;Reproductive Efficiency;TGF-${\beta}$ Superfamily

Acknowledgement

Supported by : FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo)

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