- Volume 48 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
The Assessment of Framingham Risk Score and 10 Year CHD Risk according to Application of LDL Cholesterol or Total Cholesterol
LDL Cholesterol 또는 Total Cholesterol의 적용에 따른 Framingham Risk Score와 10년 내 심혈관질환 발생 위험도 평가
- Kwon, Se Young (Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Daegu Health College) ;
- Na, Young Ak (Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Daegu Health College)
- Received : 2016.02.12
- Accepted : 2016.03.21
- Published : 2016.06.30
Studies on assessment tools for predicting cardiovascular disease risk (CDR), along with the studies to prevent CDR have been consistently reported. The validity of the Framingham risk score (FRS), a commonly known tool, has been verified through the precedent studies. In this study, we examined the differences of FRS according to the application of categories of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) or Total cholesterol (TC), and attempted to evaluate the agreement of 10 yr CHD risk judgment based on the above-mentioned application. Excluding those diagnosed as cardiovascular diseases, data on subjects (755 men and 775 women) from the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. We found differences of FRS and 10 yr CHD risk depending on the application of categories of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) or Total cholesterol (TC). FRS of TC points were higher than those of LDL-C in both men and women. In classification of low risk (<10%), intermediate risk (10~19%), and high risk (
- World Health Organization. 2012 Deaths: Top 10 causes [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014. [cited 2016 January 10] Available: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/index2.html
- Korean Statistical Information Service. 2014 Cause of death web statistics system [Internet]. Seoul: Korean Statistical Information Service; 2015 [cited 2016 January 10]. Available from: http://kosis.kr/statisticsList/statisticsList_01List.jsp.
- Emberson JR, Whincup PH, Morris RW, Walker M. Re-assessing the contribution of serum total cholesterol, blood pressure and cigarette smoking to the aetiology of coronary heart disease: impact of regression dilution bias. Eur Heart J. 2003;24(19):1719-1726. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-668X(03)00471-8
- Shin KA, Kim HY, Kim NJ. Association between exercise capacity and cardiovascular risk factors among obesity types in adult man. Korean J Clin Lab Sci. 2013;45(3):96-101.
- Jin BH, Han MH. Comparison of clinical laboratory data and prevalence according to arterial stiffness in stroke patients. Korean J Clin Lab Sci. 2014;46(4):143-149. https://doi.org/10.15324/kjcls.2014.46.4.143
- Pearson TA, Blair SN, Daniels SR, Eckel RH, Fair JM, Fortmann SP, et al. AHA guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke: 2002 update. Circulation. 2002;106(3):388-391. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000020190.45892.75
- Executive summary of the third report of the national cholesterol education program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001;285:2486-2497. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.19.2486
- Emberson JR, Whincup PH, Morris RW, Walker M, Ebrahim S. Evaluating the impact of population and high-risk strategies for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J. 2004;25(6):484-491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehj.2003.11.012
- Wilson PWF, D' Agostino RB, Levy D, Belanger AM, Silbershatz H, Kannel WB. Prediction of coronary heart diseases using risk factor categories. Circulation. 1998;97:1837-1847. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.97.18.1837
- Murray CJ, Lauer JA, Hutubessy RC, Niessen L, Tomijima N, Rodgers A, et al. Effectiveness and costs of intervention to lower systolic blood pressure and cholesterol: A global and regional analysis on reduction of cardiovascular-disease risk. Lancet. 2003;361(9359):717-725. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12655-4
- Ford ES, Giles WH, Mokdad AH. The distribution of 10-Year risk for coronary heart disease among US adults: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:1791-1796. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2003.11.061
- Assmann G, Cullen P, Schulte H. Simple scoring scheme for calculating the risk of acute coronary events based on the 10-year follow-up of the prospective cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) study. Circulation. 2002;105(3):310-315. https://doi.org/10.1161/hc0302.102575
- Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redon J, Zanchetti A, Christiaens T, et al. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: The task force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens. 2013;31:1281-1355. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.hjh.0000431740.32696.cc
- Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. Risk assessment for the prevention of cardio-cerebrovascular disease at workplace (KOSHA Code H-1-2013) [Internet]. Seoul: Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency; 2013 [cited 2016 January 15]. Available from: http://www.kosha.or.kr/info/getKoshaCodeGuideList.do.
- Versteylen MO, Joosen IA, Shaw LJ, Narula J, Hofstra L. Comparison of Framingham, PROCAM, SCORE, and Diamond Forrester to predict coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. J Nucl Cardiol. 2011;18(5):904-911. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12350-011-9425-5
- D'Agostino RB Sr, Grundy S, Sullivan LM, Wilson P; CHD Risk Prediction Group. Validation of the Framingham coronary heart disease prediction scores: results of a multiple ethnic groups investigation. JAMA. 2001;286(2):180-187. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.286.2.180
- Brindle PM, McConnachie A, Upton MN, Hart CL, Davey Smith G, Watt GCM. The predictive accuracy of the Framingham risk score in different socio-economic groups: a large prospective study. Br J Gen Pract. 2005;55(520):838-845.
- Brindle PM, Beswick AD, Fahey T, Ebrahim SB. The accuracy and impact of risk assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: A systematic review. Heart. 2006;92(12):1752-1759. https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2006.087932
- Kim MB, Park WJ, Jang KH, Lee DK, Chae HJ, Moon JD. Comparison of cardiovascular disease risk assessment tools by using coronary CT angiography. Korean J Occup Environ Med. 2010;22(2):102-113. https://doi.org/10.35371/kjoem.2010.22.2.102
- Um IY, Choi WJ, Lee D, Oh JS, Yi MK, Yoon JW, et al. Risk assessment for cardiovascular diseases in male workers: comparing KOSHA guidelines and the framingham risk score system. Korean J Occup Environ Med, 2012;24(4):365-374. https://doi.org/10.35371/kjoem.2012.24.4.365
- Viera AJ, Garrett JM. Understanding interobserver agreement: The kappa statistic. Fam Med. 2005;37(5):360-363.
- Grundy SM, Pasternak R, Greenland P, Smith S, Fuster V. Assessment of cardiovascular risk by use of multiple-risk-factor assessment equations. Circulation. 1999;100:1481-1492. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.100.13.1481
- Kim HJ, Min HG, Kim YL, Lee SK. Correlation between serum homocysteine level and framingham risk score. Korean J Fam Pract. 2014;4(3):227-231.
- Park KO, Seo JY. Gender differences in factors influencing the framingham risk score-coronary heart disease by BMI. J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2014;25(4):248-258. https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2014.25.4.248
- Kim YK, Kim DM, The relation of pulse wave velocity with framingham risk score and SCORE risk score. Korean Circ J. 2005;35(1):22-29. https://doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2005.35.1.22