Habitual Tea Consumption Reduces Prostate Cancer Risk in Vietnamese Men: a Case-Control Study

  • Published : 2016.11.01


Background: An upward trend has been noted for the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) in Vietnam, but information is limited on modifiable factors associated with this form of cancer. This case-control study was conducted to ascertain any relationship between habitual tea consumption and PCa risk. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-three incident patients with histologically confirmed PCa and 419 (340 community-based and 79 hospital-based) controls, matched by age, were recruited in Ho Chi Minh City during 2013-2015. Information on frequency, quantity and duration of tea consumption, together with demographics, habitual diet and lifestyle characteristics, was obtained by direct interviews using a validated questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between tea consumption variables and PCa risk. Results: The control subjects reported higher tea consumption levels in terms of cumulative exposure, frequency and quantity of tea drank than the PCa patients. After accounting for confounding factors, increasing tea consumption was found to be associated with reduced risk of PCa. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.52 (95% CI 0.35-0.79) and 0.30 (95% CI 0.18-0.48) for participants drinking 100-500 ml/day and > 500 ml/day, respectively, relative to those drinking < 100 ml/day. Significant inverse dose-response relationships were also observed for years of drinking and number of cups consumed daily (P <0.01). Conclusion: Habitual tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of PCa in Vietnamese men.



Supported by : Curtin University


  1. Astill C, Birch MR, Dacombe C, et al (2001). Factors affecting the caffeine and polyphenol contents of black and green tea infusions. J Agric Food Chem, 49, 5340-7.
  2. Butt MS, Ahmad RS, Sultan MT, et al (2015). Green tea and anticancer perspectives: updates from last decade. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 55, 792-805.
  3. Etzioni R, Cha R, Feuer EJ, et al (1998). Asymptomatic incidence and duration of prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol, 148, 775-85.
  4. Fei X, Shen Y, Li X, et al (2014). The association of tea consumption and the risk and progression of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med, 7, 3881-91.
  5. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, et al (2015). Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer, 136, 359-86.
  6. Gathirua-Mwangi WG, Zhang J (2014). Dietary factors and risk for advanced prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev, 23, 96-109.
  7. Geybels MS, Neuhouser ML, Stanford JL (2013). Associations of tea and coffee consumption with prostate cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control, 24, 941-8.
  8. Higdon JV, Frei B (2003). Tea catechins and polyphenols: health effects, metabolism, and antioxidant functions. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 43, 89-143.
  9. Humphrey PA (2004). Gleason grading and prognostic factors in carcinoma of the prostate. Mod Pathol, 17, 292-306.
  10. Hyde Z, Flicker L, McCaul KA, et al (2012). Associations between testosterone levels and incident prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer. A population-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 21, 1319-29.
  11. International Agency for Research on Cancer/World Health Organization. 2012. GLOBOCAN 2012: Estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012 [Online]. Available: [Accessed 15 April 2016].
  12. Jain MG, Hislop GT, Howe GR, et al (1998). Alcohol and other beverage use and prostate cancer risk among Canadian men. Int J Cancer, 78, 707-11.<707::AID-IJC7>3.0.CO;2-2
  13. Jian L, Xie LP, Lee AH, et al (2004). Protective effect of green tea against prostate cancer: A case-control study in southeast China. Int J Cancer, 108, 130-5.
  14. Johnson JJ, Bailey HH, Mukhtar H (2010). Green tea polyphenols for prostate cancer chemoprevention: a translational perspective. Phytomedicine, 17, 3-13.
  15. Kumar NB, Pow-Sang J, Egan KM, et al (2015). Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Green Tea Catechins for Prostate Cancer Prevention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 8, 879-87.
  16. Kurahashi N, Sasazuki S, Iwasaki M, et al (2008). Green tea consumption and prostate cancer risk in Japanese men: a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol, 167, 71-7.
  17. Lee AH, Fraser ML, Meng X, et al (2006). Protective effects of green tea against prostate cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther, 6, 507-13.
  18. Lee SC, Chan WK, Lee TW, et al (2008). Effect of a prodrug of the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer in vivo. Nutr Cancer, 60, 483-91.
  19. Lee YH, Kwak J, Choi HK, et al (2012). EGCG suppresses prostate cancer cell growth modulating acetylation of androgen receptor by anti-histone acetyltransferase activity. Int J Mol Med, 30, 69-74.
  20. Liao S, Kao YH, Hiipakka RA (2001). Green tea: biochemical and biological basis for health benefits. Vitam Horm, 62, 1-94.
  21. Lin YW, Hu ZH, Wang X, et al (2014). Tea consumption and prostate cancer: an updated meta-analysis. World J Surg Oncol, 12, 38.
  22. Montague JA, Butler LM, Wu AH, et al (2012). Green and black tea intake in relation to prostate cancer risk among Singapore Chinese. Cancer Causes Control, 23, 1635-41.
  23. National Institute of Nutrition 2007. Vietnamese Food Composition Table, Hanoi, Medical Publishing House.
  24. Nguyen CT, Pham NM, Tran DV, et al (2016). Lifestyle and diet in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in Vietnam: a hospitalbased case-control study. Springerplus, 5, 687.
  25. Patel VH (2014). Nutrition and prostate cancer: an overview. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther, 14, 1295-304.
  26. Peairs A, Dai R, Gan L, et al (2010). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) attenuates inflammation in MRL/lpr mouse mesangial cells. Cell Mol Immunol, 7, 123-32.
  27. Roehrborn CG, Black LK (2011). The economic burden of prostate cancer. BJU Int, 108, 806-13.
  28. Shafique K, McLoone P, Qureshi K, et al (2012). Tea consumption and the risk of overall and grade specific prostate cancer: a large prospective cohort study of Scottish men. Nutr Cancer, 64, 790-7.
  29. Siddiqui IA, Asim M, Hafeez BB, et al (2011). Green tea polyphenol EGCG blunts androgen receptor function in prostate cancer. FASEB J, 25, 1198-207.
  30. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2016). Cancer statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J Clin, 66, 7-30.
  31. Taichman RS, Loberg RD, Mehra R, et al (2007). The evolving biology and treatment of prostate cancer. J Clin Invest, 117, 2351-61.
  32. Tran DV, Hoang DV, Nguyen CT, et al (2013). Validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire to assess habitual dietary intake in Northern Vietnam. Vietnam J Public Health, 1, 57-64.
  33. Van Dong H, Lee AH, Nga NH, et al (2014). Epidemiology and prevention of prostate cancer in Vietnam. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 9747-51.
  34. Vance TM, Su J, Fontham ET, et al (2013). Dietary antioxidants and prostate cancer: a review. Nutr Cancer, 65, 793-801.
  35. von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, et al (2007). Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. BMJ, 335, 806-8.
  36. Wang P, Heber D, Henning SM (2012). Quercetin increased the antiproliferative activity of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer, 64, 580-7.
  37. Yu F, Jin Z, Jiang H, et al (2014). Tea consumption and the risk of five major cancers: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMC Cancer, 14, 197.
  38. Yuan JM (2013). Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr, 98, 1676-81.
  39. Zhang YF, Xu Q, Lu J, et al (2015). Tea consumption and the incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Eur J Cancer Prev, 24, 353-62.
  40. Zheng J, Yang B, Huang T, et al (2011). Green tea and black tea consumption and prostate cancer risk: an exploratory metaanalysis of observational studies. Nutr Cancer, 63, 663-72.