- Volume 17 Issue 10
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Determination of Metal Levels in Shamma (Smokeless Tobacco) with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in Najran, Saudi Arabia
- Brima, Eid I. (Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Khalid University)
- Published : 2016.10.01
Objective: The use of Shamma (smokeless tobacco) by certain groups is giving rise to health problems, including cancer, in parts of Saudi Arabia. Our objective was to determine metals levels in Shamma using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Methods: Thirty-three samples of Shamma (smokeless tobacco) were collected, comprising four types: brown Shamma (n = 14.0), red Shamma (n = 9.0), white Shamma (n = 4.0), and yellow Shamma (n = 6.0). All samples were collected randomly from Shamma users in the city of Najran. Levels of 11 elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined by ICP-MS. Results: A mixed standard (20 ppb) of all elements was used for quality control, and average recoveries ranged from 74.7% to 112.2%. The highest average concentrations were found in the following order: Al (
Supported by : King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST)
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