- Volume 17 Issue 10
DOI QR Code
Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Dorsum of the Tongue and Buccal Epithelium
- Al Shammari, Abdullah Faraj (College of Dentistry, University of Hail) ;
- AL Ibrahim, Ibrahim Khalil (College of Dentistry, University of Hail) ;
- Alaauldeen, Amjad Ibrahim (Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Al-Qura University, Mekka, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)) ;
- Merza, Randa Fouad (Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Al-Qura University, Mekka, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)) ;
- Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim (College of Medicine, University of Hail)
- Published : 2016.10.01
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the dorsum of the tongue and buccal epithelium. Methodology: This case control cross-sectional study was conducted with 174 smoking and non-smoking volunteers living in the city of Hail, Northern KSA. Cytological Materials were obtained from buccal mucosa and dorsum of the tongue, and assessed using cytopathological methods. Results: In buccal smears, cytological atypia was observed in 17 out of 101 (16.8%) smoker cases but only 3/73(4.1%) of the controls. For cytological atypia in buccal and tongue smears, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were found to be 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P < 0.016)) and 4.3 (0.93- 20.2), P <0.06)), respectively, in the two sites. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for occurrence of cytological atypia, which might subsequently develop into oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. Oral exfoliative cytology is an easy and cheap non-invasive procedure which appears highly suitable for screening populations at risk of developing oral cancer.
Tobacco smoking;buccal mucosa;cytological atypia;tongue;oral
- Ahmed HG (2013). Etiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. J Oral Maxillofac Res, 4, e3.
- Ahmed HG (2013). Survey on Knowledge and Attitudes Related to the Relation between Tobacco, Alcohol Abuse and Cancer in the Northern State of Sudan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3345-48. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3345
- Rajesh S, Reddy SB, Shriniwas K (2012). Cytomorphometric analysis of obtained squamesobtained from normal oral mucosa and lesions of oral submucous fibrosis. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol, 24, 200-5. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1295
- Reibel J (2003). Tobacco and oral diseases. update on the evidence, with recommendations. Med Princ Pract, 12, 22-32. https://doi.org/10.1159/000069845
- Sham AS, Cheung LK, Jin LJ, Corbet EF (2003). The effects of tobacco use on oral health. Hong Kong Med J, 9, 271-7.
- Taybos G (2003). Oral changes associated with tobacco use. Am J Med Sc, 326, 179-82. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000441-200310000-00005
- Warnakulasuriya S. Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol, 45, 309-16.
- WHO (2016). Global Health Observatory (GHO) data. Prevalence of tobacco smoking. Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/tobacco/use/en
- Ahmed HG, Babiker AEA (2009). Assessment of cytological atypia, AgNOR and nuclear area in epithelial cells of normal oral mucosa exposed to toombak and smoking. Rare Tumors, 1, e18. https://doi.org/10.4081/rt.2009.e18
- Ahmed HG, Ebnoof SO, Hussein-MO M, Gbreel AY (2010). Oral epithelial atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, peppers and hot meals, using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou staining techniques. Diagn Cytopathol, 38, 489-95.
- Ahmed HG, Idris AM, Ibrahim SO (2003). Study of oral epithelial atypia among Sudanese tobacco users by exfoliative cytology. Anticancer Res, 23, 1943-9.
- Ahmed HG, Idris AM, Mohmed EA, Hussein MO (2009). Value of centrifugated liquid-based cytology bt Papanicolaou and May-Gruwald in oral epithelial cells. Rare Tumors, 12, 9-11.
- Algorinees RM, Alreshidi IG, Alateeq MF, et al (2016). Prevalence of cigarette smoking usage among adolescent students in northern saudi arabia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 17, 3839-43.
- Al-Jaber A, Al-Nasser L, El-Metwally A (2016). Epidemiology of oral cancer in Arab countries. Saudi Med J, 37, 249-55. https://doi.org/10.15537/smj.2016.3.11388
- Almutairi KM (2015). Trends in Current Tobacco Use, Smoking Rates and Quit Attempts among Saudi Population during Periods of 17 Years (1996-2012): Narrative Review Article. Iran J Public Health, 44, 170-75.
- Alshammari FD, Khalifa AM, Kosba AA, et al (2015). Assessment of Perception of medical students in regard to links between tobacco or alcohol use and cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 2697-700. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.7.2697
- Bassiony MM (2009). Smoking in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J, 30, 876-81.
- Buch AC, Patel SS, Chandanwale SS, et al (2014). Study of oral exfoliative cytology in tobacco chewers of western India. Int J Pharma Bio Sci, 4,138-43.
- Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al (2010). Estimates of world wide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer, 127, 2893-17. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25516
- Hecht SS (2012). Lung carcinogenesis by tobacco smoke. Int J Cancer, 131, 2724-32. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27816
- Juntanong N, Siewchaisakul P, Bradshaw P, et al. (2016). Prevalence and factors associated with oral pre-malignant lesions in northeast Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 17, 4175-79.
- Khot K, Deshmane S, Bagri-Manjarekar K, Warke D, Kotak K (2015). A cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal changes in tobacco users. J Nat Sc Biol Med, 6, 22-4. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.166055
- Marano KM, Kathman SJ, Jones BA, et al (2015). Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers. Part 3: evaluation and comparison with the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Inhal Toxicol, 27, 167-73. https://doi.org/10.3109/08958378.2015.1009196
- Notani PN (2000). Epidemiology and prevention of head and neck cancer: a global view. In: Saranath D, editor. Contemporary issues in oral cancer. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 1-29.