- Volume 17 Issue 10
Background: Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been linked to increased risk of cancers in body sites like the breast and colorectum. However exposure of ALAN as an environmental risk factor and its relation to cancers in humans has never been studied in detail. Objective: To explore the association of ALAN with all forms of cancers in 158 countries. Materials and Methods: An ecological study encompassing global data was conducted from January to June 2015, with age-standardized rates (ASR) of cancers as the outcome measure. ALAN, in the protected areas, as the exposure variable, was measured with reference to the Protected Area Light Pollution Indicator (PALI) and the Protected Area Human Influence Indicator (PAHI). Pearson's correlations were calculated for PALI and PAHI with ASR of cancers for 158 countries, adjusted for country populations, electricity consumption, air pollution, and total area covered by forest. Stratified analysis was conducted according to the country income levels. Linear regression was applied to measure the variation in cancers explained by PALI and PAHI. Results: PALI and PAHI were positively associated with ASR of all forms of cancer, and also the four most common cancers (p < 0.05). These positive correlations remained statistically significant for PAHI with all forms of cancer, lung, breast, and colorectal cancer after adjusting for confounders. Positive associations of PALI and PAHI with cancers varied with income level of the individual countries. Variation in all forms of cancers, and the four most common cancers explained by PALI and PAHI, ranged from 3.3 - 35.5%. Conclusion: Artificial light at night is significantly correlated for all forms of cancer as well as lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers individually. Immediate measures should be taken to limit artificial light at night in the main cities around the world and also inside houses.
Artificial light at night;lung cancer;breast cancer;colorectal cancer;prostate cancer
- Aubrecht C, Jaiteh M, De Sherbinin A (2010). Global assessment of light pollution impact on protected areas. Columbia University, New York, 6-7.
- Aubrecht C, Stojan-Dolar M, De Sherbinin A, et al (2010). Lighting governance for protected areas and beyond- Identifying the urgent need for sustainable management of artificial light at night Earthzine. PLoS One, 8, e61460.
- Bray F, Jemal A, Grey N, Ferlay J, Forman D (2012). Global cancer transitions according to the Human Development Index (2008 - 2030): a population-based study. Lancet Oncol, 13, 790-801. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70211-5
- Boffetta P, Nyberg F (2003). Contribution of environmental factors to cancer risk. Br Med Bull, 68, 71-94. https://doi.org/10.1093/bmp/ldg023
- Bonmati-Carrion MA, Arguelles-Prieto R, Martinez-Madrid MJ, et al (2014). Protecting the Melatonin Rhythm through Circadian Healthy Light Exposure. Int J Mol Sci, 15, 23448-500. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151223448
- Cancer Research UK (2015). Worldwide cancer statistics. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/worldwide-cancer#heading-Zero. Accessed May 25.
- Danaei G, Vander Hoorn S, Lopez AD, Murray CJL, Ezzati M (2005). Comparative Risk Assessment collaborating g. Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors. Lancet, 366, 1784-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67725-2
- Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al (2010). Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer, 127, 2893-2917. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25516
- Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, et al (2015). Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer, 136, 359-86. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29210
- Haim A, Zubidat AE (2015). Artificial light at night: melatonin as a mediator between the environment and epigenome. Philos Trans R Soc, 370.
- IARC. GLOBOCAN 2012: Estimated Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide in 2012. http://globocan.iarc.fr/Default.aspx. Accessed May 10, 2015.
- International union for conservation of nature. what are protected areas? http://worldparkscongress.org/about/what_are_protected_areas.html. Accessed May 25, 2015.
- Schernhammer ES, Laden F, Speizer FE, et al (2001). Rotating night shifts and risk of breast cancer in women participating in the nurses' health study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 93,1563-68. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/93.20.1563
- World Cancer Research Fund International. Cancer facts and figures - comapring more and less developed countries. http://www.wcrf.org/int/cancer-facts-figures/comparingmore-less-developed-countries. Accessed May 26, 2015.
- Yang WS, Deng Q, Fan WY, Wang WY, Wang X (2014). Light exposure at night, sleep duration, melatonin, and breast cancer: a dose-response analysis of observational studies. Eur J Cancer Prev, 23, 269-76. https://doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000030