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Prevalence and Risk Assessment of Cervical Cancer Screening by Papanicolaou Smear and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid for Pregnant Women at a Thai Provincial Hospital

  • Lertcharernrit, Jiraporn (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Prapokklao Hospital) ;
  • Sananpanichkul, Panya (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Prapokklao Hospital) ;
  • Suknikhom, Wineeya (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Prapokklao Hospital) ;
  • Bhamarapravatana, Kornkarn (Department of Preclinical Science, Thammasat University) ;
  • Suwannarurk, Komsun (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Thammasat University) ;
  • Leaungsomnapa, Yosapon (Department of Pediatric, Adult and Elderly, Phrapokklao Nursing College)
  • Published : 2016.08.01

Abstract

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common in Thailand, but the mortality rate may be rising yearly. It is a cancer that can be prevented by early screening for precancerous lesions, several methods being available. Objective: To identify the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and lesions with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) in pregnant women and assess risk factors for this group. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed at Prapokklao Hospital, Thailand during April-July 2016. All pregnant women of gestational age between 12-36 weeks who attended an antenatal clinic were recruited. All participants were screened for cervical cancer by Pap smear and VIA. If results of one or both were abnormal, colposcopic examination was evaluated by gynecologic oncologist. Results: A total of 414 pregnant women were recruited. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smear and VIA were 6.0 and 6.7 percent, respectively. The most common abnormal Pap smear was low grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, 44%). Factors associated with abnormal Pap smear in pregnant women were low BMI, multiple partners and being a government officer. In pregnancy, Pap smear had higher sensitivity and specificity than VIA for detection of precancerous cervical lesion. Patients with young coitarche or more than 25 years of active sexual activity were high risk groups. Conclusions: Prevalence of abnormal Pap smear and VIA in pregnant women was 6.0 and 6.7 percent, respectively. Factors associated with abnormal Pap smear were coitarche, years of sexual activity, low BMI, multiple partners and being a government officer.

Keywords

Papanicolaou smear;visual inspection with acetic acid;colposcopy;cervical cancer;pregnancy

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Research Institute of Prapokklao Hospital

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