Factors Affecting Preferences of Iranian Women for Breast Cancer Screening Based on Marketing Mix Components

  • Pourfarzi, Farhad (Community Medicine Group, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Fouladi, Nasrin (Community Medicine Group, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Amani, Firouz (Community Medicine Group, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Ahari, Saeid Sadegieh (Community Medicine Group, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Roshani, Zohre (Community Medicine Group, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Alimohammadi, Sara (Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2016.08.01


Background: According to recent statistics, the breast cancer rate is growing fast in developing countries. In North West of Iran, the incidence of breast cancer after esophageal and gastric cancers has the highest rate. Previous studies have also indicated that women in this region show reluctance to do breast cancer screening. There is a great need for change to promote breast cancer screening among women. Social marketing is a discipline that uses the systematic application of commercial marketing techniques to promote the adoption of behavior by the target audience. Materials and Methods: In the present qualitative study, thirty-two women with breast cancer were interviewed about their experiences of breast cancer screening. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to elicit information specific to the 4 P's in social marketing. Results: Three main categories emerged from the analysis: price, service and promotion. Subcategories related to these main categories included factors effective in increasing and decreasing cost of screening, current and desirable features of screening services, and weakness of promotion. Conclusions: Screening programs should be designed to be of low cost, to meet patients' needs and should be provided in suitable places. Furthermore, it is essential that the cultural beliefs of society be improved through education. It seems necessary to design an executive protocol for breast cancer screening at different levels of primary health care to increase the women's willingness to undergo screening.


  1. Brunicardi F, Schwartz S 2010. Schwartz's Principles of Surgery, New York, MC Graw Hill publisher.
  2. Crawford J, Frisina A, Hack T, et al (2015). A peer health educator program for breast cancer screening promotion: arabic, chinese, south asian, and vietnamese immigrant women's perspectives. Nurs Res Pract, 2015, 947245.
  3. Donnelly TT, Al Khater AH, Al Kuwari MG, et al (2015). Do socioeconomic factors influence breast cancer screening practices among Arab women in Qatar? BMJ Open, 5, 5596.
  4. El Bcheraoui C, Basulaiman M, Wilson S, et al (2015). Breast cancer screening in saudi arabia: free but almost no takers. PLoS One, 10, 119051.
  5. Farid ND, Aziz NA, Al-Sadat N, et al (2014). Clinical breast examination as the recommended breast cancer screening modality in a rural community in Malaysia; what are the factors that could enhance its uptake? PLoS One, 9, 106469.
  6. Fouladi N, Pourfarzi F, Mazaheri E, et al (2013). Beliefs and behaviors of breast cancer screening in women referring to health care centers in northwest Iran according to the champion health belief model scale. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6857-62.
  7. Grier S, Bryant CA (2005). Social marketing in public health. Annu Rev Public Health, 26, 319-39.
  8. Hsieh HF, Shannon SE (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res, 15, 1277-88.
  9. Ka'opua LS (2008). Developing a culturally responsive breast cancer screening promotion with Native Hawaiian women in churches. Health Soc Work, 33, 169-77.
  10. Leeman J, Moore A, Teal R, et al (2013). Promoting community practitioners’ use of evidence-based approaches to increase breast cancer screening. Public Health Nurs, 30, 323-31.
  11. Loh SY, Ong L, Ng LL, et al (2011). Qualitative experiences of breast cancer survivors on a self-management intervention: 2-year post-intervention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1489-95.
  12. Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Harirchi I, et al (2008). Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods. Asia Pac Fam Med, 7, 6.
  13. Mousavi SM, Montazeri A, Mohagheghi MA, et al (2007). Breast cancer in Iran: an epidemiological review. Breast J, 13, 383-91.
  14. Shamsi M, Neyestani H, Ebrahimipour H, et al (2014). Using social marketing model to persuade the women to do mammography. J School Public Health Institude Of Public Health Res, 12, 85-96.
  15. Suarez-Almazor ME (2011). Changing health behaviors with social marketing. Osteoporos Int, 22, 461-3.
  16. Talbert P (2008). Using social marketing to increase breast cancer screening among African American women:perspectives from African American breast cancer survivors. Int J Nonprofit Voluntary Sector Market, 13, 347-62.
  17. Tazhibi M, Feizi A (2014). Awareness levels about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and screening and therapeutic approaches among Iranian adult women: a large population based study using latent class analysis. Biomed Res Int, 2014, 306352.
  18. Tirgari B, Iranmanesh S, Fazel A, et al (2012). Quality of life and mood state in Iranian women post mastectomy. Clin J Oncol Nurs, 16, 118-22.
  19. Yaghoubi M, Agharahimi Z, Karimi S, et al (2011). Factors affecting patients’ preferences in choosing a hospital based on the mix marketing components in Isfahan. Hakim Research J, 14, 106-14.