Global Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates According to the Human Development Index

  • Khazaei, Salman (Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Rezaeian, Shahab (Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Ayubi, Erfan (Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Gholamaliee, Behzad (Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Pishkuhi, Mahin Ahmadi (School of Public Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Khazaei, Somayeh (BSc in Operating Room, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mansori, Kamyar (Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Nematollahi, Shahrzad (Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Sani, Mohadeseh (School of Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Hanis, Shiva Mansouri (Students' Research Committee (SRC), Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2016.08.01


Background: Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of death, especially in developed countries. The human development index (HDI) and its dimensions seem correlated with incidence and mortality rates of PC. This study aimed to assess the association of the specific components of HDI (life expectancy at birth, education, gross national income per 1000 capita, health, and living standards) with burden indicators of PC worldwide. Materials and Methods: Information of the incidence and mortality rates of PC was obtained from the GLOBOCAN cancer project in year 2012 and data about the HDI 2013 were obtained from the World Bank database. The correlation between incidence, mortality rates, and the HDI parameters were assessed using STATA software. Results: A significant inequality of PC incidence rates was observed according to concentration indexes=0.25 with 95% CI (0.22, 0.34) and a negative mortality concentration index of -0.04 with 95% CI (-0.09, 0.01) was observed. Conclusions: A positive significant correlation was detected between the incidence rates of PC and the HDI and its dimensions including life expectancy at birth, education, income, urbanization level and obesity. However, there was a negative significant correlation between the standardized mortality rates and the life expectancy, income and HDI.


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