DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Assessing Breast Cancer Risk among Iranian Women Using the Gail Model

  • Khazaee-Pool, Maryam (Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Majlessi, Fereshteh (School of Public Health, Knowledge Utilization Research Center) ;
  • Nedjat, Saharnaz (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Montazeri, Ali (Mental Health Research Group, Health Metrics Research Center, Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR) ;
  • Janani, leila (Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Pashaei, Tahereh (Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2016.08.01

Abstract

Background: Breast cancer risk assessment is a helpful method for estimating development of breast cancer at the population level. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants consisted of a group of 3,847 volunteers ($mean{\pm}SD$ age: $463{\pm}7.59$ years) in a convenience sample of women referred to health centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. The risk of breast cancer was estimated by applying the National Cancer Institute's online version of the Gail Risk Assessment Tool. Results: Some 24.9% of women reported having one first-degree female relative with breast cancer, with 8.05% of them having two or more first-degree relatives with breast cancer. The mean five-year risk of breast cancer for all participants was $1.61{\pm}0.73%$, and 9.36% of them had a five-year risk of breast cancer >1.66%. The mean lifetime risk of breast cancer was $11.7{\pm}3.91%$. Conclusions: The Gail model is useful for assessing probability of breast cancer in Iranian women. Based on the their breast cancer risk, women may decide to accept further screening services.

Keywords

Breast cancer;Gail model;risk assessment;Iranian women

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Tehran University of medical sciences

References

  1. Abu-Rustum N, Herbolsheimer H (2001). Breast cancer risk assessment in indigent women at a public hospita. Gynecologic Oncol, 81, 287-290. https://doi.org/10.1006/gyno.2001.6160
  2. Andreeva VA, Pokhrel P (2013). Breast cancer screening utilization among Eastern European immigrant women worldwide: a systematic literature review and a focus on psychosocial barriers. Psycho-Oncol, 22, 2664-75. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3344
  3. Bevers TB, Anderson BO, Bonaccio E, et al (2009). NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: breast cancer screening and diagnosis. J Natl Compr Canc Netw, 7, 1060-1096. https://doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2009.0070
  4. Ceber E, Mermer G, Okcin F, et al (2013). Breast cancer risk and early diagnosis applications in Turkish women aged 50 and over. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5877-5882. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.10.5877
  5. Ceber, E., M. T. Soyer, M. Ciceklioglu and S. Cimat (2006). Breast cancer risk assessment and risk perception on nurses and midwives in Bornova Health District in Turkey. Cancer Nurs, 29, 244-249. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002820-200605000-00013
  6. Chay WY, Ong WS, Tan PH, et al (2012). Validation of the Gail model for predicting individual breast cancer risk in a prospective nationwide study of 28,104 Singapore women. Breast Cancer Res, 14, 19.
  7. Costantino JP, Gail MH, Pee D, et al (1999). Validation studies for models projecting the risk of invasive and total breast cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst, 91, 1541-1548. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/91.18.1541
  8. Dano H, Andersen O, Ewertz M, Petersen JH, Lynge E (2003). Socioeconomic status and breast cancer in Denmark. Int J Epidemiol, 32, 218-224. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyg049
  9. Dano H, Hansen K, Jensen P (2004). Fertility pattern does not explain social gradient in breast cancer in Denmark. Int J Cancer, 111, 451-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.20203
  10. Davis S., Stewart S, Bloom J (2004). Increasing the accuracy of perceived breast cancer risk: results from a randomized trial with Cancer Information Service callers. Prev Med, 39, 64-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.02.043
  11. Erbil N, Dundar N, Inan C, Bolukbas N (2015). Breast cancer risk assessment using the Gail model: a Turkish study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 303-6. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.1.303
  12. Ferrer J, Neyro JL, Estevez A (2005). Identification of risk factors for prevention and early diagnosis of a-symptomatic postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 52, 7-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2005.06.017
  13. Gail MH, Brinton LA, Byar DP, et al (1989). Projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are being examined annually. J Natl Cancer Inst, 81, 1879-86. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/81.24.1879
  14. Gao F, Machin D, Chow KY, et al (2012). Assessing risk of breast cancer in an ethnically South-East Asia population (results of a multiple ethnic groups study). BMC Cancer, 12, 529. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-12-529
  15. Karakayali F, Ekici Y, Sevmis S (2007). Gail model for determination of the risk factors of breast cancer. Turkish J Surgery, 23, 129-35.
  16. Khazaee-pool M, Majlessi F, Foroushani AR, Montazeri A, Nedjat S, Shojaeizadeh D, Tol A, Salimzadeh H (2014). Perception of breast cancer screening among Iranian women without experience of mammography: a qualitative study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3965-71. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.9.3965
  17. Khazaee-Pool M, Montazeri A, Majlessi F, Rahimi Foroushani A, Nedjat S, Shojaeizadeh D (2014). Breast cancer-preventive behaviors: exploring Iranian women’s experiences. BMC Womens Health, 14, 41. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-14-41
  18. Mermer G, Meseri R (2011). Evaluation of breast cancer risk status of women aged 40 and above, living in Kemalpasa District, Izmir. STED J, 20, 51-56.
  19. Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Harirchi I, Harirchi AM, Sajadian A, Khaleghi F, Ebrahimi M, Haghighat S, Jarvandi S (2008). Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods. Asia Pac Fam Med, 7, 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1447-056X-7-6
  20. Nechuta S, Paneth N, Velie EM (2010). Pregnancy characteristics and maternal breast cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic literature. Cancer Causes Control, 21, 967-89. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-010-9524-7
  21. Seyednoori T, Pakseresht S, Roushan Z (2012). Risk of developing breast cancer by utilizing Gail model. Women Health, 52, 391-402. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2012.678476
  22. Sifuentes-Alvarez A, Castaneda-Martinez LY, Lugo-Nevares M, Reyes-Romero MA (2015). Risk factors associated with breast cancer women’s in Durango, Mexico. Ginecol Obstet Mex, 83, 662-9.
  23. Yilmaz M, Guler G, Bekar M, Guler N (2011). Risk of breast cancer, health beliefs and screening behaviour among Turkish academic women and housewives. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 817-22.