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Clinicopathologic Assessment of Ocular Adnexal Lymphoproliferative Lesions at a Tertiary Eye Hospital in Iran

  • Asadi-Amoli, Fahimeh (Department of Pathology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Nozarian, Zohreh (Department of Pathology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Bonaki, Hirbod Nasiri (School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mehrtash, Vahid (School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Entezari, Samaneh (School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2016.08.01

Abstract

Background: The most common type of ocular lymphoma is non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), categorized into two groups: indolent (slow growing) and aggressive (rapid growing). Differentiating benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) from malignant ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) is challenging. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry have been used as diagnostic tools in such cases. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective case series, from 2002 to 2013 at Farabi Eye Center, 110 patients with ocular lymphoproliferative disease were enrolled. Prevalence, anatomical locations, mean age at diagnosis and the final diagnosis of the disease with IHC were assessed. Comparison between previous pathologic diagnoses and results of IHC was made. Immunoglobulin light chains and B-cell and T-cell markers and other immuno-phenotyping markers including CD20, CD3, CD5, CD23, CD10, CYCLIND1 and BCL2 were evaluated to determine the most accurate diagnosis. The lymphomas were categorized based on revised European-American lymphoma (REAL) classification. Results: Mean age ${\pm}$ SD (years) of the patients was $55.6{\pm}19.3$ and 61% were male. Patients with follicular lymphoma, large B-cell lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small cell lymphoma (CLL/SLL) tended to be older. Nine patients with previous diagnoses of low grade B-cell lymphoma were re-evaluated by IHC and the new diagnoses were as follows: extranodal marginal zone lymphoma(EMZL) (n=1), SLL(n=1), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) (n=3), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia RLH (n=2). Two cases were excluded due to poor blocks. Flow cytometry reports in these seven patients revealed SLL with positive CD5 and CD23, MCLwith positive CD5 and CyclinD1 and negative CD23, EMZL with negative CD5,CD23 and CD10. One RLH patient was negative for Kappa/Lambda and positive for CD3 and CD20 and the other was positive for all of the light chains, CD3 and CD20. Orbit (49.1%), conjunctiva (16.1%) and lacrimal glands (16.1%) were the most common sites of involvement. Conclusions: Accurate pathological classification of lesions is crucial to determine proper therapeutic approaches. This can be achieved through precise histologic and IHC analyses by expert pathologists.

Keywords

Ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative disease;immunohistochemistry;pathology;lymphoma

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