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Outcomes of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Combined Chemotherapy with Radiotherapy Without Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

  • Supaadirek, Chunsri (Division of Radiotherapy, Department of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Pesee, Montien (Division of Radiotherapy, Department of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Thamronganantasakul, Komsan (Division of Radiotherapy, Department of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Thalangsri, Pimsiree (Division of Radiotherapy, Department of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Krusun, Srichai (Division of Radiotherapy, Department of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Supakalin, Narudom (Division of Radiotherapy, Department of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University)
  • Published : 2016.07.01

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the treatment outcomes of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or combined chemotherapy together with radiotherapy (CMT-RT) without surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma (stage II or III) between January $1^{st}$, 2003 and December $31^{st}$, 2013 were enrolled, 48 treated with preoperative CCRT (Gr.I) and 36 with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CMT-RT) without surgery (Gr.II). The chemotherapeutic agents used concurrent with radiotherapy were either 5-fluorouracil short infusion plus leucovorin and/or capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil infusion alone. All patients received pelvic irradiation. Results: There were 5 patients (10.4%) with a complete pathological response. The 3 year-overall survival rates were 83.2% in Gr.I and 24.8 % in Gr.II (p<0.01). The respective 5 year-overall survival rates were 70.3% and 0% (p<0.01). The 5 year-overall survival rates in Gr.I for patients who received surgery within 56 days after complete CCRT as compared to more than 56 days were 69.5% and 65.1% (p=0.91). Preoperative CCRT used for 12 of 30 patients in Gr.I (40%) with lower rectal cancer demonstrated that in preoperative CCRT a sphincter sparing procedure can be performed. Conclusions: The results of treatment with preoperative CCRT for locally advanced rectal cancer showed comparable rates of overall survival and sphincter sparing procedures as compared to previous studies.

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