- Volume 17 Issue 7
DOI QR Code
Lack of an Apparent Association between Mycotoxin Concentrations in Red Chili Peppers and Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer in India : an Ecological Study
- Ikoma, Toshikazu (New Faculty Installation Preparation Room, Hokuriku University) ;
- Kapoor, Vinay Kumar (Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
- Behari, Anu (Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
- Mishra, Kumudesh (Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
- Tsuchiya, Yasuo (Division of Preventive Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences) ;
- Asai, Takao (Department of Clinical Engineering and Medical Technology, Niigata University of Health and Welfare) ;
- Endoh, Kazuo (Department of Health and Nutrition, Niigata University of Health and Welfare) ;
- Okano, Kiyoshi (Mycotoxin Research Association) ;
- Nakamura, Kazutoshi (Division of Preventive Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences)
- Published : 2016.07.01
Our recent studies conducted in South America have shown that mycotoxin contamination of red chili peppers (RCPs) may be associated with an increased risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Whether this relationship exists in India, a country with a high incidence of GBC and high consumption of RCPs, is unclear. We therefore measured concentrations of aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in RCPs from areas of low, medium, and high incidence of GBC in India, and compared these concentrations with GBC incidence in each area. Twenty-one RCP samples were collected from nine cities (eight from a low-incidence area, five from a medium-incidence area, and eight from a high-incidence area). Concentrations of AFs and OTA were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant differences in mean concentrations of AFs and OTA were found in the three areas. AFB1 levels in the low-incidence area (
Supported by : Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture
- Asai T, Tsuchiya Y, Okano K, Piscoya A, Nishi CY, Ikoma T, et al. (2012). Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5167-70. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5167
- Brennan P. (2002). Gene-environment interaction and aetiology of cancer: what does it mean and how can we measure it? Carcinogenesis, 23, 381-7. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/23.3.381
- Foerster C, Koshiol J, Guerrero AR, Kogan MJ, Ferreccio C. (2016). The case for aflatoxins in the causal chain of gallbladder cancer. Med. Hypotheses, 86, 47-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2015.11.026
- Guarisco JA, Hall JO, Coulombe RA Jr. (2008). Butylated hydroxytoluene chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis - effects on aflatoxin B(1) ,, hepatic DNA adduct formation, and biliary excretion. Food Chem Toxicol, 46, 3727-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.09.050
- Gupta S, Kori C, Kumar V, Misra S, Akhtar N (2016). Epidemiological study of gallbladder cancer patients from north Indian gangetic planes-a high-volume centre's experience. J Gastrointest Cancer, 47, 27-35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12029-015-9781-5
- Honkawa Data Tribune. (2007). Chili consumption around the world based on the FAOSTAT data of 2005. http://,www2.ttcn.ne.jp/honkawa/0460.html (in Japanese).
- Ikoma T, Tsuchiya Y, Asai T, Okano K, Ito N, Endoh K, et al. (2015). Ochratoxin A contamination of red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, countries with a high incidence of gallbladder cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 5987-91. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.14.5987
- Indian Council of Medical Research. (2014). Consensus document on management of gallbladder cancers. http://www.icmr.nic.in/guide/cancer/Gall%20Bladder/GALLBLADDER%20CANCER.pdf
- Jain K, Sreenivas V, Velpandian T, Kapil U, Garg PK. (2013). Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a case-control study. Int J Cancer, 132, 1660-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27777
- Jeswal P, Kumar D. (2015). Mycobiota and natural incidence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and citrinin in Indian spices confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Int J Microbiol, 242486, 8
- Kanthan R, Senger JL, Ahmed S, Kanthan SC. (2015). Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century. J Oncol, 2015, 1-26.
- Kapoor VK, McMichael AJ. (2003). Gallbladder cancer: an 'Indian' disease. Natl Med J India, 16, 209-13.
- Kumar JR, Tewari M, Rai A, Sinha R, Mohapatra SC, Shukla HS. (2006). An objective assessment of demography of gallbladder cancer. J Surg Oncol, 93, 610-4. https://doi.org/10.1002/jso.20526
- Lunn RM, Langlois RG, Hsieh LL, Thompson CL, Bell DA. (1999). XRCC1 polymorphisms: effects on aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts and glycophorin A variant frequency. Cancer Res, 59,, 2557-61.
- Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. (2008). Handling of foods containing mycotoxins (aflatoxins), Director Notice, Department of Food Safety, Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Burau, Shoku-an No. 0728004, Tokyo.
- Murthy NS, Rajaram C, Gautham MS, Shivraj NS, Pruthvish S, George PS, et al. (2011). Trends in incidence of gallbladder cancer-Indian scenario. Gastrointestinal Cancer: Targets Therapy, 1, 1-9.
- Nogueira L, Foerster C, Groopman J, Egner P, Koshiol J, Ferreccio C. (2015). Association of aflatoxin with gallbladder cancer in Chile. JAMA, 313, 2075-77. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.4559
- Panda D, Sharma A, Shukla NK, Jaiswal R, Dwivedi S, Raina V, et al. (2013). Gall bladder cancer and the role of dietary and lifestyle factors: a case-control study in a North Indian population. Eur J Cancer Prev, 22, 431-7. https://doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0b013e32835f3b45
- Pandey M. (2003). Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a reappraisal. Eur J Cancer Prev, 12, 15-24. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008469-200302000-00004
- Pandey M, Shukla VK. (2002). Diet and gallbladder cancer: a case-control study. Eur J Cancer Prev, 11, 365-8. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008469-200208000-00008
- Rai A, Mohapatra SC, Shukla HS (2004). A review of association of dietary factors in gallbladder cancer. Indian J Cancer, 41, 147-51.
- Serra I, Yamamoto M, Calvo A, et al (2002). Association of chili pepper consumption, low socioeconomic status and longstanding gallstones with gallbladder cancer in a Chilean population. Int J Cancer, 102, 407-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.10716
- Sharma JD, Kalit M, Nirmolia T, et al (2014). Cancer: scenario and relationship of different geographical areas of the globe with special reference to North East-India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3721-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.8.3721
- Sugita-Konishi Y, Tanaka T, Nakajima M, Fujita K, Norizuki H, Mochizuki N, et al. (2006). The comparison of two cleanup procedures, multifunctional column and immunoaffinity column, for HPLC determination of ochratoxin A in cereals, raisins and green coffee beans. Talanta, 69, 650-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2005.10.036
- The Commission of the European Communities. (2006). Commission regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006), 1-35.
- Tsuchiya Y, Terao M, Okano K, et al (2011). Mutagenicity and mutagens of the red chili pepper as gallbladder cancer risk factor in Chilean women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 471-6.
- Wistuba II, Gazdar AF. (2004). Gallbladder cancer: lessons from a rare tumour. Nat Rev Cancer, 4, 695-706. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc1429