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Phytochemicals from Goniothalamus griffithii Induce Human Cancer Cell Apoptosis

  • Banjerdpongchai, Ratana (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University) ;
  • Khaw-on, Patompong (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University) ;
  • Pompimon, Wialrt (Laboratory of Natural Products, Faculty of Science, Lampang Rajabhat University)
  • Published : 2016.07.01

Abstract

Bioactive compounds extracted from leaves and twigs of Goniothalamus griffithii include pinocembrin (PCN) and goniothalamin (GTN). The objectives of this study were to investigate the cytotoxic activities of PCN and GTN and their influence on molecular signaling for cell death in several human cancer cell lines compared to normal murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cells. GTN exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity against MCF-7 > HeLa > HepG2 > NIH3T3 cells with $IC_{50}$ values of 7.33, 14.8, 37.1 and $65.4{\mu}M$, respectively, whereas PCN was cytotoxic only to HepG2 cells with $IC_{50}$ values of ${\sim}80{\mu}M$. Apoptotic cell death was confirmed by staining the cells with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) employing flow cytometry. Apoptosis was shown by externalization of phosphatidylserine in goniothalamin-treated MCF-7 cells in a dose response manner. Positive PI-stained cells with the typical morphology of apoptotic cells were increased dose-dependently. Furthermore, reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was found in goniothalamin-treated MCF-7, HepG2 and HeLa cells. GTN treatment in MCF-7 increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities while GTN-induced HeLa cells showed an increase of both caspase-3 and -9 activities. But an increased caspase-8 activity was demonstrated in GTN- and PCN-treated MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, respectively. Taken together, GTN- and PCN-induced human cancer cell apoptosis was through different molecular mechanisms or signaling pathways, which might be due to different machineries in different types of cancer cells, as evidenced by the compound-modulated caspase activities in both intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathways.

Keywords

Pinocembrin;goniothalamin;Goniothalamus griffithii;cancer cells;apoptosis

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Thailand Research Fund (TRF, Commission of Higher Education (CHE)

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