High Risk Human Papilloma Virus Genotypes in Kurdistan Region in Patients with Vaginal Discharge

  • Hussein, Nawfal R (Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medical Science, School of Medicine, University of Duhok) ;
  • Balatay, Amer A (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medical Science, School of Medicine, University of Duhok) ;
  • Assafi, Mahde S (Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zakho) ;
  • Al-Mufty, Tamara Abdulezel (Department of Pathology, Maternity Teaching Hospital) ;
  • Khalil, Amira S (Gynecology Hospital)
  • Published : 2016.07.01


Background: The human papilloma virus (HPV) is considered as the major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. This virus is of different genotypes and generally can be classified into high and low risk types. Objective: To determine the rate of high risk HPV genotypes in women with vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain in Kurdistan region, Iraq. Materials and Methods: Cervical swabs were taken from 104 women. DNA was extracted and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the presence of high risk genotypes. Results: It was found that 13/104 (12.5%) of the samples were positive for high risk HPV genotypes. Amongst those who were positive, 4/13 (30.7%) were typed as genotype 16 and 7/13 (53.8%) showed mixed genotyping. On the other hand, genotypes 53 and 56 were found in only one sample each. Conclusions: High risk HPV genotypes are not uncommon and further community based study is needed to determine the prevalence of HPV and its genotypes and plan for prevention of infection.


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