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Incidence and Management of Toxicity Associated with L-Asparaginase in the Treatment of ALL and NK/T-Cell Lymphoma: an Observational Study

  • Yeang, Shu Hui (Department of Pharmacy, Singapore General Hospital) ;
  • Chan, Alexandre (Department of Pharmacy, National Cancer Centre Singapore) ;
  • Tan, Chuen Wen (Department of Haematology, Singapore General Hospital) ;
  • Lim, Soon Thye (Department of Pharmacy, National Cancer Centre Singapore) ;
  • Ng, HengJoo (Department of Haematology, Singapore General Hospital)
  • Published : 2016.07.01

Abstract

Background: L-asparaginase (ASNase) is commonly used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma. This study was designed to describe the incidence of toxicity associated with ASNase in Asian adults. Secondary objectives were to investigate the management and impact of toxicity on subsequent ASNase use, and to compare the actual management against current recommendations. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, multi-center, observational study, Asian patients ${\geq}18$ years old who received ${\geq}1$ dose of the native E. coli ASNase from 2008 to 2013 were included. Patients were excluded if they did not receive ASNase. Endpoints of this study were development of specific toxicities, whether ASNase was discontinued or re-challenged, and developmentg of recurrent toxicity. All data analyses were performed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: A total of 56 patients were analyzed. Mean (${\pm}SD$) age was 36.2 (${\pm}15.2$) years old, with 62.5% being males, 55.4% with ALL and 28.6% with NK/T-cell lymphoma. Hypersensitivity (12.5%) was associated with the highest incidence of toxicity (6 out of 7 patients had Grade 3 and 4 toxicity), followed by 10.7% for hepatic transaminitis, 3.6% for non-CNS thrombosis and 1.8% each for hyperbilirubinemia and pancreatitis. Hypersensitivity recurred in the 3 patients who were re-challenged with E. coli ASNase. Conclusions: ASNase is associated with a wide range of toxicities, with hypersensitivity being the most commonly observed among Asian adult patients.

Keywords

L-Asparaginase;ALL;NK/T cell lymphoma;treatment;toxicity;hypersensitivity

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