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Gastric Carcinoma: Recent Trends in Diagnostic Biomarkers and Molecular Targeted Therapies

  • Majeed, Wafa (Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Iftikhar, Asra (Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Khaliq, Tanweer (Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Aslam, Bilal (Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Muzaffar, Humaira (Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Atta, Komal (Department of Physiology, University Medical and Dental College, The University of Faisalabad) ;
  • Mahmood, Aisha (Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture) ;
  • Waris, Shahid (Government College University)
  • Published : 2016.07.01

Abstract

Gastric cancer is generally associated with poor survival rates and accounts for a remarkable proportion of global cancer mortality. The prevalence of gastric carcinoma varies in different regions of world and across teh various ethnic groups. On the basis of pathological assessment, gastric cancer can be categorized as intestinal and diffuse carcinomas. The etiology is diverse, including chemical carcinogen exposure, and high salt intake Helicobacter pylori also plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of certain gastric carcinomas. The development of gastric cancer involves various alterations in mRNAs, genes (GOLPH3, MTA2) and proteins (Coronins). miRNAs, Hsa-mir-135b, MiR-21, miR-106b, miR-17, miR-18a, MiR-21, miR-106b, miR-17, miR-18a and MiRNA-375, miRNA-195-5p are the latest diagnostic biomarkers which can facilitate the early diagnosis of gastric carcinomas. Recent development in the treatment strategies for gastric carcinoma include the introduction of monoclonal antibodies, TKI inhibitors, inhibitors of PDGFR ${\beta}$, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, Anti-EGFR and anti-HER2 agents which can be applied along with conventional therapies.

Keywords

miRNAs;GOLPH3;MTA2;MiRNA-375;PDGFR ${\beta}$;VEGFR-1 & 2;anti-HER2

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