- Volume 17 Issue 6
Mortality Attributable to Second Hand Smoking in Morocco: 2012 Results of a National Prevalence Based Study
- Tachfouti, Nabil (Laboratory of Epidemiology, Clinical Research and Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy. University Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah) ;
- Najdi, Adil (Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University Abdelmalek Saadi) ;
- Lyoussi, Badiaa (Laboratory of Physiology- Pharmacology-Environmental Health, Faculty of Sciences Dhar Mahraz) ;
- Nejjari, Chakib (University Mohammed VI of Health Sciences Casablanca)
- Published : 2016.06.01
Purpose: To estimate the number of deaths attributable to second hand smoking (SHS) in Morocco in 2012. Materials and Methods: prevalence based study focusing on mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and lung cancer among non-smokers aged 35 and over. Prevalence of SHS among never smokers was gathered from a national cross sectional survey on tobacco and population attributable risk (PAR) was calculated by applying PARs to mortality. The analyses were stratified by sex, age and area of exposure. Results: Rates for exposure to SHS among men aged 35-64 years ranged from 20.0% at home to 57.4% at work. Among non-smoking Moroccans aged 35 and over, 233 (IC: 147 - 246) deaths were attributable to exposure to SHS; 156 (IC: 100 - 221) in women and 77 (IC: 44 -125) in men. A total of 173 (122 - 222) deaths were estimated to have been caused by exposure only at home, 34 (9 - 76) by exposure only at the work place and 26 (15 - 58) by exposure both at home and work places. Exposure to SHS could be responsible for 182 (128 - 237) deaths from IHD and 51 (19 - 109) from lung cancer. Conclusions: These data confirm that SHS needs urgent attention in Morocco.
Second hand smoking;attributable risk;cancer and IHD mortality;Morocco
- Berraho M, Serhier Z, Tachfouti N, et al (2010). Burden of smoking in Moroccan rural areas. Eastern Med Health J, 16, 677-83. https://doi.org/10.26719/2010.16.6.677
- Dahir No. 1-91-112 of 26 June 1995 promulgating Law No. 15-91 prohibiting smoking and advertising or publicity for tobacco in certain places (1995). Bulletin officiall, 4318, 542.
- El Fakir S, Serhier Z, Berraho M, Elrhazi et al (2011). Knowledge and perceptions of smoking according to income level in Morocco. Am J Health Promot. 25, 387-91. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.090123-QUAN-30
- El Rhazi K, Nejjari C, Berraho M, et al (2008). Inequalities of smoking profile in Morocco: The role of educational level. Int Jour Tub Lun Dis, 12, 1327-32.
- Eriksen MP, Cerak RL (2008). The diffusion and impact of clean indoor air laws. Annu Rev Public Health, 29, 171-85. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090920
- Gan Q, Smith K, Hammond S, Hu T- W (2007). Disease burden of adult lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease from passive tobacco smoking in China. Tob Control, 16, 417-22 https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2007.021477
- Gilmore AB, Collin J (2002). The world's first international tobacco 24. BMJ, 325, 846-7. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7369.846
- Hackshaw AK, Law MR, Wald NJ (1997). The accumulated evidence on lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke. BMJ, 315, 980-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7114.980
- Harlan R (2007). Declines in hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction in New York State After Implementation of a Comprehensive Smoking Ban. Am J Public Health, 97, 2035-29. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2006.099994
- Haut commissariat au plan http://www.hcp.ma/Populationdu-Maroc-par-annee-civile-en-milliers-et-au-milieu-del-annee-par-milieu-de-residence-1960-2050_a677.html. Accessed May 13, 2013.
- He J, Vupputuri S, Allen K, et al (1999). Passive smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease - a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. N Engl J Med, 340, 920-6. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199903253401204
- Jamrozik K (2005). Estimate of deaths attributable to passive smoking among UK adults: database analysis. BMJ, 330, 812-5. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38370.496632.8F
- Johnson KC, Glantz SA (2008). Evidence secondhand smoke causes breast cancer in 2005 stronger than for lung cancer in 1986. Prev Med, 46, 492-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.11.016
- Kawachi I, Colditz G (1996). Invited commentary: confounding, measurement error, and publication bias in studies of passive smoking. Am J Epidemiol, 144, 909-15 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008860
- Law M, Morris J, Wald N (1997). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and ischaemic heart disease: an evaluation of the evidence. Br Med J, 315, 973-80. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7114.973
- Lee PN, Forey B (1996). Misclassification of smoking habits as a source of bias in the study of environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer. Stat Med, 15, 581-605. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19960330)15:6<581::AID-SIM182>3.0.CO;2-B
- Lilienfeld DE, Stolley PD (1994). Foundations of Epidemiology. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Lopez MJ, Nebot M, Juarez O, et al (2006). Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers. Med Clin, 126, 13-4.
- Lopez AD, Collishaw E, Piha T (1994). A descriptive model of the cigarette epidemic in developed countries. Tob Control 3, 242-7. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.3.3.242
- Max W, Sung HY, Shi Y (2012). Deaths from secondhand smoke exposure in the united states: economic implications. Am J Epidemiol, 102, 2173-80.
- Merritt TA, Mazela J, Adamczak A, at al (2012). The impact of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure on pregnancy outcomes, infant health, and the threat of third-hand smoke exposure to our environment and to our children. Przegl Lek, 69,717-20.
- Ministere de la Sante (2013). Sante en chiffre, 2.
- Musk AW, De Klerk NH (2003). History of tobacco and health. Respirol, 8, 286-90. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1843.2003.00483.x
- Nejjari C, Benjelloun MC, Berraho M, et al (2009). Prevalence and demographic factors of smoking in Morocco. Int J Public, 54, 447-451 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-009-0082-2
- Oberg M, Jaakkola MS, Woodward A, et al (2011). Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. Lancet, 377, 139-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61388-8
- Palavra IR, Franelic IP, Milanovic SM, et al (2013). Passive smoking active killer. Lijec Vjesn, 135, 326-9
- Rockhill B, Newman B, Weinberg C (1998): Use and misuse of population attributable fractions. Am J Pub Health, 88, 15-9. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.1.15
- Schonherr E (1928). Contribution to the statistical and clinical features of lung tumours in German. Z Krebsforsch, 27, 436-50. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02125480
- Slama K (1998) Tobacco control and prevention. International union against tuberculosis and lung disease: a guide for low income countries, Paris;
- Steenland K (1999). Risk assessment for heart disease and workplace SHS exposure among nonsmokers. Environ Health Perspect, 107, 859-63 https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.99107s6859
- Stevens G, Dias RH, Thomas KJA, et al (2008). Characterizing the epidemiological transition in Mexico: national and subnational burden of diseases, injuries and risk factors. PLoS, 5, 125. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050125
- Sung H-Y, Chang LC, Wen YW, et al (2014). The costs of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in Taiwan: a prevalence based annual cost approach. BMJ Open, 4, 5199.
- Tazi MA, Abid-Khalil S, Chaouki N, et al (2003). Prevalence of the main cardiovascular. 225 risk factors in Morocco: results of a National Survey, 2000. J Hypertens, 21, 897-903. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004872-200305000-00013
- Tachfouti N, Berraho M, Elfakir S, et al (2010). Socioeconomic status and tobacco expenditures among Moroccans: Results of the MARTA survey. Am J Health Prom, 24, 334-39. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.080603-QUAN-82
- Tachfouti N, Raherison C, Najdi A, et al (2014). Smokingattributable mortality in Morocco: results of a prevalencebased study in Casablanca. Archives Public Health, 72, 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/2049-3258-72-23
- Tachfouti N, El Rhazi K, Berraho M, et al (2011). Knowledge and attitude about antismoking legislation according to smoking status in Morocco. Eastern Mediterranean Health J, 17, 297-302. https://doi.org/10.26719/2011.17.4.297
- US Surgeon General (2006). The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the surgeon general. atlanta: us department of health and human services, centers for disease control and prevention, coordinating center for health promotion, national center for chronic disease prevention and health promotion, offi ce on smoking and health, 2006.
- Walter SD (1976). The estimation and interpretation of attributable risk in health research. Biometrics, 32, 829-49. https://doi.org/10.2307/2529268
- Wells AJ (1998). Heart disease from passive smoking in the workplace. J Am Coll Cardiol, 31, 1-9.
- World Health Organization (2010). Second-hand smoke. Assessing the burden of disease at national and local levels. WHO environmental burden of disease series, No. 18. Gevova.
- Woodward A and Laugesen M (2001). How many deaths are caused by second hand cigarette smoke? Tob Control, 10, 383-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.10.4.383