Oncogenic Activation of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-3 and RAS Genes as Non-Overlapping Mutual Exclusive Events in Urinary Bladder Cancer

  • Pandith, Arshad A (Advanced Centre for Human Genetics) ;
  • Hussain, Aashaq (Department of Urology, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Khan, Mosin S (Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Shah, Zafar A (Departments of Immunology and Molecular Medicine, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Wani, M Saleem (Departments of Clinical Biochemistry, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Siddiqi, Mushtaq A (Departments of Immunology and Molecular Medicine, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2016.06.01


Background: Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy in the West and ranks as the $7^{th}$ most common cancer in our region of Kashmir, India. FGFR3 mutations are frequent in superficial urothelial carcinoma (UC) differing from the RAS gene mutational pattern. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and association of FGFR3 and RAS gene mutations in UC cases. Materials and Methods: Paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue specimens of 65 consecutive UC patients were examined. DNA preparations were evaluated for the occurrence of FGFR3 and RAS gene mutations by PCR-SCCP and DNA sequencing. Results: Somatic point mutations of FGFR3 were identified in 32.3% (21 of 65). The pattern and distribution were significantly associated with low grade/stage (p<0.05). The overall mutations in exon 1 and 2 in all the forms of RAS genes aggregated to 21.5% and showed no association with any clinic-pathological parameters. In total, 53.8% (35 of 65) of the tumors studied had mutations in either a RAS or FGFR3 gene, but these were totally mutually exclusive in and none of the samples showed both the mutational events in mutually exclusive RAS and FGFR3. Conclusions: We conclude that RAS and FGFR3 mutations in UC are mutually exclusive and non-overlapping events which reflect activation of oncogenic pathways through different elements.


Bladder cancer;FGFR3;RAS;gene mutations;Kashmir;mutually exclusive


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