Raw Fish Consuming Behavior Related to Liver Fluke Infection among Populations at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand

  • Chavengkun, Wasugree (Faculty of Public Health, Vongchavalitkul University) ;
  • Kompor, Pontip (Faculty of Public Health, Vongchavalitkul University) ;
  • Norkaew, Jun (Faculty of Public Health, Vongchavalitkul University) ;
  • Kujapun, Jirawoot (Faculty of Public Health, Vongchavalitkul University) ;
  • Pothipim, Mali (Faculty of Public Health, Vongchavalitkul University) ;
  • Ponphimai, Sukanya (Faculty of Public Health, Vongchavalitkul University) ;
  • Kaewpitoon, Soraya J (School of Family Medicine and Community Medicine, Khon Kaen Univeristy) ;
  • Padchasuwan, Natnapa ;
  • Kaewpitoon, Natthawut (Faculty of Public Health, Vongchavalitkul University)
  • Published : 2016.06.01

Abstract

Opisthorchiasis is a health problem in rural communities of Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate raw fish consuming behavior related to liver fluke infection among the population at risk for opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Meuang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeast Thailand, between June and October 2015. Participants were screened for CCA, and samples who had a high score of CCA risk were purposively selected. A predesigned questionnaire was utilized to collect the data from all participants. $X^2-test$ was used for analysis of associations between demographic data and raw fish consumption. The results revealed that participants had past histories of stool examination (33.0%), liver fluke infection (21.0%), praziquantel use (24.0%), raw fish consumption (78.0%), relatives family consuming raw fish (73.0%), and relatives family with CCA (3.0%). Participants consumed several dished related to liver fluke infection, mainly raw fermented fish (13.0%), under smoked catfish (5.00%), raw pickled fish (4.00%), and raw spicy minced fish salad (3.00%). The most common types of cyprinoid fish were Barbodes gonionotus (39%), Hampala dispar (38%), Puntius brevis (37%), Cyclocheilichthys armatus (33%), Puntioplites proctozysron (32%), and Luciosoma bleekeri (30%), respectively. Participants had a low level of knowledge (mean=3.79, SD=0.74), moderate attitude (mean=7.31, SD=7.31) and practice (mean=38.64, SD=6.95) regarding liver fluke prevention and control. Demographic variables like age (>36 years old; $X^2-test=17.794$, p-value=0.001), education (primary school; $X^2-test=18.952$, p-value=0.001), marital status (married; $X^2-test=12.399$, p-value=0.002), and income (<5,000 baht; $X^2-test=27.757$, p-value=0.015) were significantly associated with raw fish consumption. This result indicates that the population had risk consumption for liver fluke infection particularly of various cyprinoid fishes that are $2^{nd}$ intermediate hosts. Therefore, health education is required to improve their behavior.

Keywords

Raw fish consuming behavior;liver fluke;cholangiocarcinoma;Thailand

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Health Security Office

References

  1. Bhamarapravati N, Viranuvatti W (1966). Liver diseases in Thailand. Analysis of liver biopsies. Am J Gastroenterol, 45, 267-76.
  2. Best JW (1993). Research in Education. Boston, MA. Allyn Bacon, 247.
  3. Bloom BS, Hastings JT, Madaus G (1971). Handbook on formative and summative evaluation of student learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  4. Boonpucknavig S, Kurathong S, Thamavit W (1986). Detection of antibodies in sera from patients with opisthorchiasis. J Clin Lab Immunol, 19, 135-7.
  5. Chernrungroj G. Risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma : a case control study: Doctoral Dissertation to the Faculty of the Graduate School, Yale University; 2000.
  6. Harinasuta C, Vajrasthira S (1960). Opisthorchiasis in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 54, 100-5.
  7. Harinasuta T, Riganti M, Bunnag D (1984). Opisthorchis viverrini infection: pathogenesis and clinical features. Arzneimittelforschung, 34, 1167-9.
  8. IARC. (1994). Infection with liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus and Clonrochis sinensis). IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks of Hum, 61, 121-75.
  9. Jongsuksuntigul P, Imsomboon T (2003). Opisthorchiasis control in Thailand. Acta Trop, 88, 229-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2003.01.002
  10. Kaewpitoon N, Kaewpitoon SJ, Pengsaa P, et al (2007). Knowledge, attitude and practice related to liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand. World J Gastroenterol, 13, 1837-40. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v13.i12.1837
  11. Kaewpitoon N, Kaewpitoon SJ, Pengsaa P (2008). Opisthorchiasis in Thailand: review and current status. World J Gastroenterol, 14, 2297-302. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.14.2297
  12. Kaewpitoon N, Kaewpitoon SJ, Ueng-arporn N, et al (2012). Carcinogenic human liver fluke: current status of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 1235-40. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.4.1235
  13. Kaewpitoon SJ, Rujirakul R, Ueng-Arporn N, et al., (2012). Community-based cross-sectional study of carcinogenic human liver fluke in elderly from Surin province, Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 4285-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.9.4285
  14. Kaewpitoon SJ, Kaewpitoon N, Rujirakul R, et al (2015). The carcinogenic liver fluke opisthorchis viverrini among rural community people in northeast thailand: a cross- sectional descriptive study using multistage sampling technique. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 7803-7. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.17.7803
  15. Kaewpitoon N, Kootanavanichpong N, Kompor P, et al (2015). Review and current status of opisthorchis viverrini infection at the community level in Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 6825-30. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.16.6825
  16. Kaewpitoon SJ, Loyd RA, Kaewpitoon N (2015). A crosssectional survey of intestinal helminthiases in rural communities of nakhon ratchasima province, Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai, 98, S27-32.
  17. Kaewpitoon SJ, Namwichaisirikul N, Loyd RA, et al (2015). Nutritional status among rural community elderly in the risk area of liver fluke, surin province, Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 8391-6.
  18. Kaewpitoon SJ, Rujirakul R, Kaewpitoon N (2012). Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeast Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5245-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.10.5245
  19. Kamsa-Ard S, Luvira V, Pugkhem A, et al (2015). Association between praziquantel treatment and cholangiocarcinoma: a hospital-based matched case-control study. BMC Cancer, 15, 776. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-015-1788-6
  20. Koompairochana V, Sonakul S, Chinda K, et al (1978). Opisthorchiasis: a clinicopathologic study of 154 cases. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 9, 60-4.
  21. Mairiang E, Elkins DB, Mairiang P, et al (1992). Relationship between intensity of Opisthorchis viverrini infection and hepatobiliary disease detected by ultrasonography. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 7, 17-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.1992.tb00928.x
  22. Mairiang E, Haswell-Elkins MR, Mairiang P, et al (1993). Reversal of biliary tract abnormalities associated with Opisthorchis viverrini infection following praziquantel treatment. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 87, 194-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0035-9203(93)90489-D
  23. Sithithaworn P, Andrews RH, Nguyen VD, et al (2012). The current status of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis in the mekong basin. Parasitol International, 61, 10-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2011.08.014
  24. Sripa B, Kaewkes S, Intapan PM, et al (2010). Food-borne trematodiases in Southeast Asia: epidemiology, pathology, clinical manifestation and control. Adv Parasitol, 72, 305-50.
  25. Sripa B, Brindley PJ, Mulvenna J, et al (2012). The tumorigenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini-multiple pathways to cancer. Trends Parasitol, 28, 395-407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2012.07.006
  26. Sripa B, Pairojkul C (2008). Cholangiocarcinoma: lessons from Thailand. Curr Opin Gastroenterol, 24, 349-56. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0b013e3282fbf9b3
  27. Sripa B, Tangkawattana S, Laha T, et al., (2015). Toward integrated opisthorchiasis control in northeast Thailand: The Lawa project. Acta Tropica, 141, 361-7 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.07.017
  28. Thamavit W, Bhamarapravati N, Sahaphong S, et al (1978). Effects of dimethylnitrosamine on induction of cholangiocarcinoma in Opisthorchis viverrini-infected Syrian golden hamsters. Cancer Res, 38, 4634-9.
  29. Sonakul D, Koompirochana C, Chinda K, et al (1978). Hepatic carcinoma with opisthorchiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 9, 215-9.