Melanoma in Iran: a Retrospective 10-Year Study

  • Ferdosi, Samira (Group of Genetics, Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran) ;
  • Saffari, Mojtaba (Group of Genetics, Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran) ;
  • Eskandarieh, Sharareh (Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS)) ;
  • Alishahi, Raziyeh (Group of Genetics, Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran) ;
  • Moghaddam, Mahsa Ghaffari (Group of Genetics, Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran) ;
  • Ghanadan, Alireza (Department of Dermatopathology, Razi Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS)) ;
  • Shirkoohi, Reza (Group of Genetics, Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran)
  • Published : 2016.06.01

Abstract

Background: Melanoma, the most life-threatening type of skin cancer, is a malignant tumor initiating in melanocytes that rapidly metastasizes and causes death. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, samples were selected from patients' information files in our Cancer Institute in Tehran with a designed checklist. A total of 322 files were found from 2003 until 2012. Then the raw data were transferred to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16 and additional analysis was performed by Students t-test. The important variables were considered according to the available information from history of pathology including age, gender, occupation, stage and location of tumor. Results: Our data showed that incidence of melanoma has been different in the studied 10-year period according to age. Also, incidence of melanoma was higher in men than women. It was more common in lower limbs. More commonly housewives among women and farmers among men were affected by melanoma. Conclusions: Taken together the descriptive data clarified general aspects of this disease for further screening and interventions.

Keywords

Melanoma;risk factors;Iran

References

  1. 2014. Cancer Facts. & Figures 2014 [Online]. American Cancer Society. Available: www.cancer.org.
  2. Azoury SC, Lange JR (2014). Epidemiology, risk factors, prevention, and early detection of melanoma. Surg Clin North Am, 94, 945-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.suc.2014.07.013
  3. Azzarello LM, Dessureault S, Jacobsen PB (2006). Sunprotective behavior among individuals with a family history of melanoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15, 142-5. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0478
  4. Bauer J, Buttner P, Murali R, et al (2011). BRAF mutations in cutaneous melanoma are independently associated with age, anatomic site of the primary tumor, and the degree of solar elastosis at the primary tumor site. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res, 24, 345-51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-148X.2011.00837.x
  5. Bergman W, Gruis NA (2010). Management of melanoma families. Cancers (Basel), 2, 549-66. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers2020549
  6. Bishop JN, Harland M, Randerson-Moor J, et al (2007). Management of familial melanoma. Lancet Oncol, 8, 46-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(06)71010-5
  7. Cho E, Rosner BA, Colditz GA (2005). Risk factors for melanoma by body site. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14, 1241-4. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0632
  8. Elwood JM, Gallagher RP (1998). Body site distribution of cutaneous malignant melanoma in relationship to patterns of sun exposure. Int J Cancer, 78, 276-80. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19981029)78:3<276::AID-IJC2>3.0.CO;2-S
  9. Erdei E, Torres SM (2010). A new understanding in the epidemiology of melanoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther, 10, 1811-23. https://doi.org/10.1586/era.10.170
  10. Ferlay J SI, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray, F. 2012. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Online].
  11. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013.
  12. Gajda M, Kaminska-Winciorek G (2014). Do not let to be late:overview of reasons for melanoma delayed diagnosis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3873-7. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.9.3873
  13. Garbe C, Terheyden P, Keilholz U, et al (2008). Treatment of melanoma. Dtsch Arztebl Int, 105, 845-51.
  14. Green A, McCredie M, Giles G, et al (1996). Occurrence of melanomas on the upper and lower limbs in eastern Australia. Melanoma Res, 6, 387-94. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008390-199610000-00006
  15. Houghton AN, Polsky D (2002). Focus on melanoma. Cancer Cell, 2, 275-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1535-6108(02)00161-7
  16. Joosse A, de Vries E, Eckel R, et al (2011). Gender differences in melanoma survival: female patients have a decreased risk of metastasis. J Invest Dermatol, 131, 719-26. https://doi.org/10.1038/jid.2010.354
  17. Karagas MR, Zens MS, Stukel TA, et al (2006). Pregnancy history and incidence of melanoma in women: a pooled analysis. Cancer Causes Control, 17, 11-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-005-0281-y
  18. Li WQ, Han J, Widlund HR, et al (2014). CXCR4 pathway associated with family history of melanoma. Cancer Causes Control, 25, 125-32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-013-0315-9
  19. Liebner DA, Walston SA, Cavaliere R, et al (2014). Radiation necrosis mimicking rapid intracranial progression of melanoma metastasis in two patients treated with vemurafenib. Melanoma Res, 24, 172-6. https://doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000044
  20. Lobos-Gonzalez L, Aguilar-Guzman L, Fernandez JG, et al (2014). Caveolin-1 is a risk factor for postsurgery metastasis in preclinical melanoma models. Melanoma Res, 24, 108-19. https://doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000046
  21. Long GV, Menzies AM, Nagrial AM, et al (2011). Prognostic and clinicopathologic associations of oncogenic BRAF in metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol, 29, 1239-46. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2010.32.4327
  22. Lyle M, Long GV (2014). The role of systemic therapies in the management of melanoma brain metastases. Curr Opin Oncol, 26, 222-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCO.0000000000000057
  23. MacKie RM, Bray C, Vestey J, et al (2007). Melanoma incidence and mortality in Scotland 1979-2003. Br J Cancer, 96, 1772-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6603801
  24. MacKie RM, Bray CA, Hole DJ, et al (2002). Incidence of and survival from malignant melanoma in Scotland: an epidemiological study. Lancet, 360, 587-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09779-9
  25. MacKie RM, Hauschild A, Eggermont AM (2009). Epidemiology of invasive cutaneous melanoma. Ann Oncol, 20, 1-7.
  26. Malak AT, Yildirim P, Yildiz Z, et al (2011). Effects of training about skin cancer on farmers' knowledge level and attitudes. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 117-20.
  27. Osterlind A, Hou-Jensen K, Moller Jensen O (1988). Incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Denmark 1978-1982. Anatomic site distribution, histologic types, and comparison with non-melanoma skin cancer. Br J Cancer, 58, 385-91. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1988.225
  28. Pukkala E, Aspholm R, Auvinen A, et al (2002). Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study. BMJ, 325, 567. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7364.567
  29. Reed KB, Brewer JD, Lohse CM, et al (2012). Increasing incidence of melanoma among young adults: an epidemiological study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc, 87, 328-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.01.010
  30. Roh MR, Eliades P, Gupta S, et al (2015). Cutaneous Melanoma in Women. Int J Womens Dermatol, 1, 21-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijwd.2015.01.001
  31. Sanlorenzo M, Vujic I, Posch C, et al (2015a). The Risk of Melanoma in Pilots and Cabin Crew: UV Measurements in Flying Airplanes. JAMA Dermatol, 151, 450-2. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.4643
  32. Sanlorenzo M, Wehner MR, Linos E, et al (2015b). The risk of melanoma in airline pilots and cabin crew: a meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol, 151, 51-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.1077
  33. Saridi MI, Rekleiti MD, Toska AG, et al (2014). Assessing a sun protection program aimed at Greek elementary school students for malign melanoma prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 5009-18. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.5009
  34. Siegel R, DeSantis C, Virgo K, et al (2012). Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin, 62, 220-41. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21149
  35. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A (2013). Cancer statistics, 2013. CA Cancer J Clin, 63, 11-30. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21166
  36. Swerdlow AJ, English J, MacKie RM, et al (1986). Benign melanocytic naevi as a risk factor for malignant melanoma. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 292, 1555-9. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.292.6535.1555
  37. Swerdlow AJ, English JS, MacKie RM, et al (1988). Fluorescent lights, ultraviolet lamps, and risk of cutaneous melanoma. BMJ, 297, 647-50. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.297.6649.647
  38. Tsao H, Atkins MB, Sober AJ (2004). Management of cutaneous melanoma. N Engl J Med, 351, 998-1012. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra041245
  39. Uysal-Sonmez O, Tanriverdi O, Esbah O, et al (2013). Multicenter evaluation of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma in Turkey: MELAS study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 533-7. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.1.533