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Combination of Potassium Pentagamavunon-0 and Doxorubicin Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest and Inhibits Metastasis in Breast Cancer Cells

  • Putri, Herwandhani (Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada) ;
  • Jenie, Riris Istighfari (Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada) ;
  • Handayani, Sri (Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada) ;
  • Kastian, Ria Fajarwati (Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada) ;
  • Meiyanto, Edy (Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada)
  • Published : 2016.05.01

Abstract

A salt compound of a curcumin analogue, potassium pentagamavunon-0 (K PGV-0) has been synthesized to improve solubility of pentagamavunon-0 which has been proven to have anti-proliferative effects on several cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate cytotoxic activity and metastasis inhibition by K PGV-0 alone and in combination with achemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (dox), in breast cancer cells. Based on MTT assay analysis, K PGV-0 showed cytotoxic activity in T47D and 4T1 cell lines with $IC_{50}$ values of $94.9{\mu}M$ and $49.0{\pm}0.2{\mu}M$, respectively. In general, K PGV-0+dox demonstrated synergistic effects and decreased cell viability up to 84.7% in T47D cells and 62.6% in 4T1 cells. Cell cycle modulation and apoptosis induction were examined by flow cytometry. K PGV-0 and K PGV-0+dox caused cell accumulation in G2/M phase and apoptosis induction. Regarding cancer metastasis, while K PGV-0 alone did not show any inhibition of 4T1 cell migration, K PGV-0+dox exerted inhibition. K PGV-0 and its combination with dox inhibited the activity of MMP-9 which has a pivotal role in extracellular matrix degradation. These results show that a combination of K PGV-0 and doxorubicin inhibits cancer cell growth through cell cycling, apoptosis induction, and inhibition of cell migration and MMP-9 activity. Therefore, K PGV-0 may have potential for development as a co-chemotherapeutic agent.

Keywords

K PGV-0;doxorubicin;breast cancer;cell lines;apoptosis;cell cycling;metastasis

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