- Volume 17 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
Clinico-Epidemiologic Patterns of Laryngeal Cancer: 5-year Results from a Regional Cancer Centre in Northeastern India
- Nallathambi, Chandran (Department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
- Yumkhaibam, Sobita Devi (Department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
- Singh, Laishram Jaichand (Department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
- Singh, Thaodem Tomcha (Department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
- Singh, Indibor Yengkhom (Department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences) ;
- Daniel, Nithinraj (Department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences)
- 발행 : 2016.05.01
Purpose: To determine the risk factors, clinical symptoms and patterns of spread in laryngeal cancer. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the Regional Cancer Centre, Imphal, Manipur, India. One hundred and sixteen patients with laryngeal cancer were retrospectively reviewed for epidemiological data and descriptive statistics were reported for various variables. Results: Median age at presentation was 65 years and 32.8% were undernourished at presentation. The male to female ratio was 5.4:1. Heavy smoking and tobacco chewing was associated in 91.4% and 33.6% of patients respectively. Tracheostomy was required in 21.5% leading to diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. Almost all were squamous cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine and verrucous carcinoma accounting for less than 2%. Supraglottic, glottic and trans-glottic tumors were 56.9%, 36.3% and 6.9% respectively. Nodal metastases were seen in 81.8% of supraglottic cancers and 31.6% of glottic cancers with supraglottic involvement. Level II neck nodes were the commonest site followed by level III. Distant metastases (only liver) were apparent in 1.7% at presentation. Including these liver metastases, unresectable cases were limited to 6% of the patients. Conclusions: Tobacco use is implicated in almost all of the cases and the sex ratio has also decreased due to increased female smokers. The supraglottis remains the commonest site and incidence of nodal metastases is higher than in other countries. There is also a higher requirement for tracheostomy at presentation in this region.
Laryngeal carcinoma;epidemiology;risk factors;tracheostomy;clinicopathology;Northeast India
- Barad AK, Mandal SK, Harsha HS, Sharma BM, Singh TS (2014). Gastric cancer-a clinicopathological study in a tertiary care centre of North-eastern India. J Gastrointest Oncol, 5, 142-7.
- DeRienzo DP, Greenberg SD, Fraire AE (1991). Carcinoma of the Larynx Changing Incidence in Women. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 117, 681-4. https://doi.org/10.1001/archotol.1991.01870180117023
- De Stefani E, Correa P, Oreggia F, et al (1987). Risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Cancer, 60, 3087-91. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19871215)60:12<3087::AID-CNCR2820601238>3.0.CO;2-6
- Fang CH, Friedman R, White PE, Mady LJ, Kalyoussef E (2015). Emergent Awake tracheostomy--The five-year experience at an urban tertiary care center. Laryngoscope, 125, 2476-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.25348
- Gallus S, Bosetti C, Franceschi S, et al (2003). Laryngeal Cancer in women: tobacco, alcohol, nutritional, and hormonal factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 12, 514-7.
- Makitie A, Pukander J, Raitiola H, et al (1999). Changing trends in the occurrence and subsite distribution of laryngeal cancer in Finland. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 256, 277-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004050050245
- Mandal SK, Singh TT, Sharma TD, Amrithalingam V (2013). Clinico-pathology of lung cancer in a regional cancer center in Northeastern India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 7277-81. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.12.7277
- Markou K, Christoforidou A, Karasmanis I, et al (2013). Laryngeal cancer: epidemiological data from vorthern greece and review of the literature. Hippokratia, 17, 313-8.
- McLaughlin MP, Mendenhall WM, Mancuso AA, et al (1995). Retropharyngeal adenopathy as a predictor of outcome in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck, 17, 190-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.2880170304
- Mendenhall WM, Mancuso AA, Amdur RJ, Werning JW (2013). Laryngeal Cancer. In 'Principles and practice of radiation oncology', Eds Halperin EC, Wazer DE, Perez CA, Brady LW Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 850-68.
- Mirvish SS (1995). Role of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and N-nitrosation in etiology of gastric, esophageal, nasopharyngeal and bladder cancer and contribution to cancer of known exposures to NOC. Cancer Lett, 93, 17-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3835(95)03786-V
- Moe K, Wolf GT, Fisher SG, Hong WK (1996). Regional metastases in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer. department of veterans affairs laryngeal cancer study group. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 122, 644-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/archotol.1996.01890180052013
- Peller M, Katalinic A, Wollenberg B, Teudt IU, Meyer JE (2016). Epidemiology of laryngeal carcinoma in Germany, 1998-2011 [Online]. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.
- Pfreundner L, Pahnke J, Desing A, Schindel M (1996). Systematic analysis of cervical lymph node metastasis of larynx and hypopharynx carcinomas--a clinical computerized tomography study with special reference to extension of the primary tumor. Laryngorhinootologie, 75, 602-10. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-997642
- Population based cancer registry. (2013). Three-Year Report of the PBCRs: 2009-2011 Leading Sites of Cancer [Online]. Bangalore, India: NCDIR-NCRP, Indian Council of Medical Research.
- Rahman M, Fukui T (2000). Bidi smoking and health. Public Health, 114, 123-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0033-3506(00)00320-6
- Raitiola H, Pukander J (2000). Symptoms of laryngeal carcinoma and their prognostic significance. Acta Oncol, 39, 213-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/028418600430798
- Section of Cancer Surveillance. (2012). GLOBOCAN 2012: Estimated Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide in 2012 [Online]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
- Singh YM, Debnath K, Devi P (2013). Population based cancer registry, Manipur State [Online]. Bangalore, India: NCDIR-NCRP, Indian council of medical research.
- Sharma TD, Singh TT, Laishram RS, et al (2011). Nasopharyngeal carcinoma - a clinico-pathological Study in a Regional Cancer Centre of Northeastern India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1583-7.
- Song P, Wu L, Guan W (2015). Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines intake and the risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. Nutrients, 7, 9872-95. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125505
- Tomik J, Skladzien J, Modrzejewski M (2001). Evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis of 1400 patients with cancer of the larynx. Auris Nasus Larynx, 28, 233-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0385-8146(00)00116-4
- Tricker AR, Preussmann R (1991). Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the diet: Occurrence, formation, mechanisms and carcinogenic potential. Mutat Res, 259, 277-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1218(91)90123-4
- Virtaniemi JA, Hirvikoski PP, Kumpulainen EJ, et al (2000). Is the subsite distribution of laryngeal cancer related to smoking habits? Acta Oncol, 39, 77-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/028418600431012
- Zheng W, Blot WJ, Shu XO, et al (1992). Diet and other risk factors for laryngeal cancer in Shanghai, China. Am J Epidemiol, 136, 178-91. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116484