DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Dry aging of beef; Review

  • Dashdorj, Dashmaa (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University) ;
  • Tripathi, Vinay Kumar (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University) ;
  • Cho, Soohyun (Animal Products Research and Development Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Younghoon (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University) ;
  • Hwang, Inho (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University)
  • Received : 2016.02.04
  • Accepted : 2016.04.15
  • Published : 2016.05.31

Abstract

The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with $0^{\circ}$ to $4^{\circ}C$ and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to 15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

References

  1. Savell JW. Dry-aging of beef, executive summary. National Cattlemen's Beef Association. 2008. http://www.beefresearch.org/cmdocs/beefresearch/dry%20Aging%20of%20beef.pdf
  2. AMPC and MLA. Australian Meat Processor Corporation and Meat & Livestock Australia. Meat technology update; Dry aging of beef. 2010. http://www.ampc.com.au/site/assets/media/Factsheets/Food-Safety-Meat-Science-Market-Access-Marketing-Consumer/MTU_2010_Dry-aging-of-beef.pdf. Accessed 10 Apr 2010
  3. Farmer-Stockman. Best techniques for dry aging studied by USMEF, OSU team. Farmer-Stockman. 2011;101(9):38. http://magissues.farmprogress.com/tfs/FS09Sep11/tfs038.pdf.
  4. Warren KE, Kastner CL. A comparison of dry-aged and vacuum-aged beef striploins. J Muscle Foods. 1992;3:151-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4573.1992.tb00471.x
  5. Miller MF, Davis GW, Ramsey CB. Effect of subprimal fabrication and packaging methods on palatability and retail case life of loin steaks from lean beef. J Food Sci. 1985;50:1544-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1985.tb10529.x
  6. Campbell RE, Hunt MC, Chambers LP, EIV. Dry-aging effects on palatability of beef longissimus muscle. J Food Sci. 2001;66:196-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2001.tb11315.x
  7. Kemp CM, Sensky PL, Bardsley RG, Buttery PJ, Parr T. Tenderness-An enzymatic view. Meat Sci. 2010;84:248-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.06.008
  8. Ahnstrom ML, Seyfert M, Hunt MC, Johnson DE. Dry aging of beef in a bag highly permeable to water vapor. Meat Sci. 2006;73:674-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.03.006
  9. Stenstrom H, Li X, Hunt MC, Lundstrom K. Consumer preference and effect of correct or misleading information after aging beef longissimus muscle using vacuum, dry aging, or a dry aging bag. Meat Sci. 2014;96:661-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.10.022
  10. Baird B. Dry aging enhances palatability of beef, Beef safety and quality. 2008. http://www.beefusa.org/uDocs/dryagingenhancespalatabilityofbeef164.pdf Accessed March April 2008.
  11. Li X, Babol J, Bredie WLP, Nielsen B, Tomankova J, Lundstrom K. A comparative study of beef quality after aging longissimus muscle using a dry aging bag, traditional dry aging or vacuum package aging. Meat Sci. 2014;97:433-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.03.014
  12. Perry N. Dry aging beef. Inter J Gastronomy and Food Sci. 2012;1:78-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgfs.2011.11.005
  13. Garlough RB, Campbell A. Dry and wet aging. In Modern Garde Manger; A global perspective. Second edition. Delmar Gengage Learning. NY, USA: 2012, p. 441-442
  14. USDA. United States standards for grades of carcass beef. 1997. https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/Carcass_Beef_Standard%5B1%5D.pdf Accessed 31 Jan 1997
  15. Lepper-Blilie AN, Berg EP, Buchanan DS, Berg PT. Effects of post-mortem aging time and type of aging on flavor, tenderness, color, and shelf-life stability of beef loins with marbling between Slight to Small, Project summary. 2012 http://www.beefissuesquarterly.com/CMDocs/BeefResearch/PE_Project_Summaries/FY11Effects_of_post-mortem_aging_time_and_type.pdf
  16. Parrish FC, Boles JA, Rust RE, Olson DG. Dry and wet aging effects on palatability attributes of beef loin and rib steaks from three quality grades. J Food Sci. 1991;56:601-3. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb05338.x
  17. Smith RD, Nicholson KL, Nicholson JDW, Harris KB, Miller RK, Griffin DB, Savell JW. Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer palatability evaluations of steaks from US choice and US select short loins. Meat Sci. 2008;79:631-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.10.028
  18. Savell JW, Harris KB, Miller RK, Griffin DB, Laster MA. Voges KL. Tenderness flavor and yield assessments of dry aged beef. Project summary. National Cattlemen's Beef Association. 2007. http://www.beefresearch.org/CMDocs/BeefResearch/PE_Project_Summaries/FY06Tenderness_flavor_yield_assessments.pdf
  19. Nishimura T, Rhue MR, Okitani A, Kato H. Components contributing to the improvement of meat taste during storage. Agric Biol Chem. 1988;52:2323-30.
  20. NAMP. The North American Meat Processors Association. In: Meat Buyers Guide. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2007. p. 11-51.
  21. DeGreer SL, Hunt MC, Bratcher CL, Crozier-Dodson BA, Johnson DE, Stika JF. Effects of dry age of bone-in and boneless strip loins using two aging processes for two aging times. Meat Sci. 2009;83:768-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.08.017
  22. USMEF, Meat Export Federation of USA. Guidelines for U.S. dry aged beef for international markets. 2014. https://www.usmef.org/guidelines-for-u-s-dry-aged-beef-for-international-markets/
  23. Lam F. Dry aged beef is a new trend in. 2013. http://www.bonappetit.com/test-kitchen/ingredients/article/dry-aged-beef-is-a-new-trend-in-restaurants-around-the-country
  24. PrimeSafe, Agency of the Government of the State of Victoria, Australia. Aging of Beef. https://www.primesafe.vic.gov.au/standards-and-guidelines/primenotes/aging-of-beef/
  25. Oreskovich DC, McKeith FK, Carr TR, Novakofski J, Bechtel PJ. Effects of different aging procedures on the palatability of beef. J Food Quality. 1988;11:151-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.1988.tb00875.x
  26. University of Wisconsin Center for Meat Process Validation, 6-Day dry-aging as a beef slaughter intervention treatment. 2006. http://meathaccp.wisc.edu/assets/beef_carcass_dry-aging.pdf
  27. Gudjonsdottir M, Gacutan MD, Mendes AC, Chronakis IS, Jespersen L, Karlsson AH. Effects of electrospun chitosan wrapping for dry aging of beef, as studied by microbiological, physicochemical and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Food Chem. 2015;184:167-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.088
  28. Dikeman ME, Obuz E, Gok V, Akkaya L, Stroda S. Effects of dry, vacuum and special bag aging; USDA quality grade; and end-point temperature on yields and eating quality of beef longissimus lumborum steak. Meat Sci. 2013;94:228-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.02.002
  29. Mottram DS. Flavor formation in meat and meat products. Food Chem. 1998;62:415-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00076-4
  30. Spanier AM, Flores M, McMilli KW, Bidne TD. The effect of post-mortem aging on meat flavor quality in Brangus beef. Correlation of treatments, sensory, instrumental and chemical descriptors. Food Chem. 1997;59:531-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00003-4
  31. Dashdorj D, Amna T, Hwang IH. Influence of specific taste active components on meat flavor as affected by intrinsic and extrinsic factors: an overview. Eur Food Res Technol. 2015;24:157-71.
  32. Laster MA, Smith RD, Nicholson KL, Nicholson JDW, Miller RK, Griffin DB, Harris KB, Savell JW. Dry versus wet aging of beef: retail cutting yields and consumer sensory attribute evaluations of steaks from rib eyes, strip loins, and top sirloins from two quality grade groups. Meat Sci. 2008;80:795-804. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.03.024
  33. Jeremiah LE, Gibson LL. The effects of postmortem product handling and aging time on beef palatability. Food Res Inter. 2003;36:929-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(03)00102-9
  34. Sitz BM, Calkins CR, Feuz DM, Umberger WJ, Eskridge KM. Consumer sensory acceptance and value of wet aged and dry aged beef steaks. J Anim Sci. 2006;84:1221-6. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.8451221x
  35. Lepper-Blilie AN, Berg EP, Buchanan DS, Berg PT. Effects of post-mortem aging time and type of aging on palatability of low marbled beef loins. Meat Sci. 2013;96:473-4.
  36. Jiang T, Busboom JR, Nelson ML, O'Fallon J, Ringkob TP, Rogers-Klette KR, Joos D, Piper K. The influence of forage diets and aging on beef palatability. Meat Sci. 2010;86:642-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.05.016
  37. Bischoff J. Dry-aging beef: Is it worth it? Meat Ind. 1984;30:12-6.
  38. Matsuishi M, Mori J, Moon YH, Okitani A. Generation of the desirable aroma, the conditioned raw beef aroma induced by storage of meat in air. Anim Sci Technol. 1993;64:163-70. http://doi.org/10.2508/chikusan.64.163. https://doi.org/10.2508/chikusan.64.163
  39. Koohmaraie M, Geesink GH. Contribution of postmortem muscle biochemistry to the delivery of consistent meat quality with particular focus on the calpain system. Meat Sci. 2006;74:34-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.04.025
  40. Panduraman M, Hwang IH. Calpain: Structure, biology and clinical significance. In: Lashinski EM, editor. Enzymes and enzyme activity: Nova Science publishers, Inc; NY, USA: 2013; ISBN: 978-1-62417-696-8. p. 73-98.
  41. Kita P. Dry-aged beef explained! Discover the process that gives steak superior flavor. http://www.menshealth.com/nutrition/dry-aged-beef-explained. Accessed 16 July 2013.