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Compound K attenuates stromal cell-derived growth factor 1 (SDF-1)-induced migration of C6 glioma cells

  • Kim, Hyuck (Department of Diagnostics, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University) ;
  • Roh, Hyo Sun (Department of Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University) ;
  • Kim, Jai Eun (Department of Pathology, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University) ;
  • Park, Sun Dong (Department of Prescription, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University) ;
  • Park, Won Hwan (Department of Diagnostics, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University) ;
  • Moon, Jin-Young (Department of Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University)
  • Received : 2015.08.13
  • Accepted : 2015.12.08
  • Published : 2016.06.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Stromal cell-derived growth factor 1 (SDF-1), also known as chemokine ligand 12, and chemokine receptor type 4 are involved in cancer cell migration. Compound K (CK), a metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside by gut microbiota, is reported to have therapeutic potential in cancer therapy. However, the inhibitory effect of CK on SDF-1 pathway-induced migration of glioma has not yet been established. MATERIALS/METHODS: Cytotoxicity of CK in C6 glioma cells was determined using an EZ-Cytox cell viability assay kit. Cell migration was tested using the wound healing and Boyden chamber assay. Phosphorylation levels of protein kinase C $(PKC){\alpha}$ and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were measured by western blot assay, and matrix metallopeptidases (MMP) were measured by gelatin-zymography analysis. RESULTS: CK significantly reduced the phosphorylation of $PKC{\alpha}$ and ERK1/2, expression of MMP9 and MMP2, and inhibited the migration of C6 glioma cells under SDF-1-stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: CK is a cell migration inhibitor that inhibits C6 glioma cell migration by regulating its downstream signaling molecules including $PKC{\alpha}$, ERK1/2, and MMPs.

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