A Basic Study on Scale Development of Problem Behaviors for Young Children

유아 문제행동 척도 개발을 위한 기초 연구

  • 김정겸 (충남대학교 교육학과) ;
  • 강영식 (충남대학교 교육학과 교육대학원 유아교육전공)
  • Received : 2015.12.10
  • Accepted : 2016.04.07
  • Published : 2016.04.30


This study is intended to draw a scale for problem behaviors of young children. To achieve this, an empirical survey was carried out on experts from three groups of daycare center teachers, kindergarten teachers and early childhood education-majored professors. A total of 209 items were measured by the scale for young children's problem behaviors from the 1970s to now. The results showed that 96 of a total 209 items in 5 categories related to the scale for young children's problem behaviors were adopted as major items. Using these 96 major items in 5 categories, 17 out of 40 items in a peer relationship category, 13 out of 41 items in a development category, 20 out of 50 items in a fundamental habit category, 22 out of 38 items in a morality category, and 24 out of 40 items in an emotion category were adopted. Most items were adopted in the emotion category, whereas most items were rejected in the development category. Therefore, it is judged that their problem behaviors are caused mainly by anxiety, shrinking, unexpected behaviors, dependence on parents or teachers, and slow behaviors due to the latent negative emotions of young children at the developing stage.


  1. K.S. Kim, The cognition of teachers and strategies of teachers regarding an children's behavior problem. MS Thesis Ewha Womnes' University, 2008.
  2. I.S. Ko, A Study for development and validation of Teacher's Behavior Checklists. MS Thesis Hanyang University, 2008.
  3. Ross, A. S. Effect of increased responsibility on bystander intervention: The presence of children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 19, pp. 306-10, 1971. DOI:
  4. S.H. Nam, Y.H, Kim, "Mother's Psychological Factors and Young Children's Internalizing Externalizing Malbehaviors Abstract", Family and Environment Research, Vol.152, pp.199-213, 2000.
  5. H.Ko, Development of a Problem Behavior Rating Scale for Young Children .Ph.D. Dissertation Chosun University, 2008.
  6. H.J.Hwang,"The Development of Tests for Use by Parents and Teachers in the Diagnosis of Preschool Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems", Korean journal of early childhood education,Vol.25 No.2, pp.235-258, 2005.
  7. S.R. Lee, Teachers' strategies managing young children's problematic behaviors. MS Thesis Jeonnam University, 2013.
  8. H. C. Quay, Classification. In H. C. Quay & J. S. Werry (Eds), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (2nd edn, pp. 1-42). New York: Wiley. 1979.
  9. H.M.Im, Aspects of Children's Problem Behavior and Language Interaction betwen Young Children and their Kindergarten Classroom Teacher. MS Thesis Chung-Ang Univeristy, 2003.
  10. S.A. Kirk, The education of exceptional children. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972.
  11. H. M. Walker,"Applications of response cost in school settings: Outcomes, issues, and recommendations", Exceptional Children Quarterly, 3, pp.47-55, 1983.
  12. S.C.Jang, Understanding and Teaching for the Maladaptive Behavior of young children. Seoul: Changjisa, 1988.
  13. M.H.Han, The Relation of Stress and Perceived Social Support to Problem Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation Seoul National University,1996.
  14. M.H.Kang, Y.J.Kang, H.R.Park, Child Problems and Behavior Modification. Seoul: Yang Seo Won Publishing Company, 1997.
  15. Y.J.Ahn, S.S.Lee, Early Childhood Guidance. Seoul : Samkwang Publishing Company, 1998.
  16. H.J. Hwang, M.H. Yoon, S.B. Kang, N.W. Sung, H.S. Hwang, "Development of a Diagnostic Test for Preschool Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems ", Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 73-88, 2002.
  17. E. Essa, Practical guide to solving preschool behavior problems. New York: Delmar Pub, 1983.
  18. H. C. Quay, J. S. Werry, Psychopathology disorders of childhood. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1972.
  19. Department for Education, Pupils with problems, draft circulars. London: Department for Education Publications Centre, 1993.
  20. N.R. Song, Study on Beginning Teacher's Perceptions and Difficulties Regarding Instructions for Young Children with Problematic Behavior. MS Thesis Sungshin Women's University, 2011.
  21. M.H. Im, "Preliminary Study on Program Development for Children's Behavior Improvement", Journal of Future Early Childhood Education, Vol. 5 No.1, pp.151-234, 1998.
  22. H.M. Walker, The acting-out child: Coping with classroom disruption. Longmont, CO: SoprisWest, 1997.
  23. T. M.Achenbach, Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL/4-18, YSR and TRF profiles. Burlington: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont. Weitz et al., 1991.
  24. K.Aunola,J.E.Nurmi, How do adolecents see their future, Developmental review 11 (1), 159, 2005.
  25. L.Behar,S.Strigfield, A behavior scale for the preschool child, Developmental Psychology 10 (5), 1974. DOI:
  26. Behar과 Stringfiled (L.Behar,S.Strigfield, The Preschool Behavior Questionnaire, 1974.
  27. G. M.Barnes, M. P.Farrel, Real jurors' understanding of the law in real cases. A Reifman, SM Gusick, PC Ellsworth, Law and Human Behavior 16 (5), 1992.
  28. Behar, Stringfield, "The Preschool Behavior Questionnaire", 1997.
  29. Kamphaus, Reynolds, C.R. Reynolds,R.W.Kamphaus, Behavior Assessment System for Children1992.
  30. S. J. Eom, "A Study on Temperament, Basic Lifestyle Habits, and Negative Psychological Factors of Mother with Infants," Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology, Vol.5, No.5, pp.341-349, Oct. 2015. DOI:
  31. G. S. Kim, S. J. Cho, "A Study on the Level of Leisure Activity Satisfaction and Self-Worth of the Parents of Disabled Children Depending on their Sociodemographic Characteristics," Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology, Vol.5, No.6, pp.197-206, Dec 2015. DOI:
  32. G.-S. Kim, S.-J. Cho, "Analysis of difference between depression and parenting stress with focus on demographic characteristics of parents with the disabled," Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 133-140, Feb. 2016. DOI: